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LONG Trip Report: Ecuador (Everything but Galapagos)

2019.11.26 20:54 smkAce0921 LONG Trip Report: Ecuador (Everything but Galapagos)

Background: I am a middle aged solo male traveler from the United States who speaks fluent Spanish. I recently spent 2 months in Ecuador as both a digital nomad and a tourist. I did NOT go to Galapagos Islands because it is expensive and I felt that it could be a tourist trap. However, I went to about every other location on the mainland and still enjoyed myself immensely. I have also been to other places throughout the region and spent time in both Colombia and Panama beforehand.
Time in Country: 9 weeks
Budget: Ecuador was a little more expensive than other countries that I have been to but I still averaged only $100 per week staying in 2/3 star hotels with about $40 USD per week being spent on food. Whenever I did an activity, I tried not to hire a guide but I didn't pay more than $10 USD for anything I did do.
Accommodation: I only stayed in private rooms in 2/3 star hotels. I utilized discounts from Booking.com
Places Visited:
Top 5 Experiences:
Cuidad del Mundo (Quito)- At the foot of El Panecillo sits a bus stop that conveniently goes to La Mitad del Mundo or “The Center of the World”. I was able to hop on the bus and pay .50 cents for the hour journey. Unfortunately, I assumed that the bus would stop directly in front of the monument so I ended up missing the stop and had to pay another .25 cents to get dropped off at the gate by a returning bus. Had I been paying more attention; I would have clearly seen the monument as it can’t be missed from the street. Cuidad del Mundo is a gimmicky theme park that takes advantage of its location in the “center of the world”. The park itself isn’t in Quito but rather neighboring Pichincha. Upon arrival, I paid the $5 USD entrance fee, however it surprised me that the ticket office didn’t accept credit card while many of the stores inside did. It was also interesting in that you can actually get a decent picture of the monument without even stepping foot into the park as it is clearly visible from the gate. A few European tourists were actually taking selfies and running off without buying a ticket and the guard didn’t seem to care. This annoyed me because they couldn’t afford the $5 USD entrance fee to support the park then they shouldn’t be traveling. Inside the gate, there were several themed areas to explore which surrounded the monument that were included in the entrance fee. One of the places that I liked was the model indigenous village right by the entrance. I was able to walk through several types of huts filled with descriptions and replica of tools that the coastal tribes used in their everyday lives. One of the huts actually had an actor playing the role of a medicine man but he didn’t really seem terribly excited to be there when I spoke to him. The same hut did have an area with several live Guinea pigs (cuy in Spanish) which I was able to get a video of. There was also a train that people are able to ride around the park (although I didn’t ride it). Like any other theme park, Cuidad del Mundo was also filled with restaurants and souvenir shops. There was also a chocolate shop that sold overpriced chocolate but had a FREE portable phone charging machine. The charging machine was a pleasant surprise given my phone was at about 20% power when I discovered it. Overall, I went at a perfect time because there were hardly any people there which allowed me to get a lot of good photos of the various attractions. I feel that I wouldn’t have enjoyed the experience as much on a Saturday when the park is full of people. I spent about an hour walking around and then caught a bus back to Quito.
La Ruta de Las Cascadas (Banos) - One of the pleasant surprises that I encountered during my stay in Baños was the opportunity to do a 60 km (38 mile) bike ride to Puyol known as La Ruta de Las Cascadas (or Route of the Waterfalls). In 2015, while living in South Korea, I got the opportunity to do ride 500 miles across various rivers of the Korean Peninsula over the course of several weeks, thus I couldn’t pass up this experience. I rented a bike on Wednesday morning from my hotel for $7 USD. Unfortunately, I had to delay the start of my trip by an hour because of the weather. I eventually left the hotel at about 9AM after the owner was kind enough to provide me a rain jacket. After riding through town, I eventually found myself on the main road. The first hour or so consisted of me getting use to riding on the highway while dealing with the rain and Ecuadorian traffic. While there were signs telling motorists to “share the highway” , most cars were still passing me at about 50-60 miles per hour. The first part of the trail was mostly downhill and fortunately my bike had decent brakes so I wouldn’t skid off the side of the mountain. I arrived at the first waterfall about 15 kilometers into the journey. While I could see it from the road, I (along with my bike) was able to take a sketchy looking tram across the valley for $2 USD. Despite the wind rocking it back and forth, I was able to take some great pictures during the 4 minute ride. Once I arrived at the other side, I chained my bike to the fence and walked down a man-made to the foot of the waterfall. The walk took about 10 minutes before I arrived at a locked gate. Had it been open, I would have had to pay another $1 to get to the base of the waterfall. Fortunately, there was a bridge that allowed me to get pretty nice shots of the waterfall from where I was at. After taking the pictures, it took me 20 minutes to get back to the highway across the valley. I had also discovered that I had only gone 20 kilometers in 2 hours. It was at that point; I was more worried about finishing at a reasonable time than sightseeing. For the next 2 hours, I passed a combination of tunnels, bridges, and small towns (usually in that order). Although the beginning of the trail was mostly downhill, that changed once I passed Rio Negro. Not only did it start to rain, but I found myself pushing a rickety 3-speed bike up 3 different mountains with cars, trucks, and buses flying past me at ridiculous rates of speed. It was at that point I started to question what the hell I was doing. Things got better about 3 hours in when I got to the Amazon lookout near to entrance of Mera. While the views were pretty good along the way, I could tell that environmental degradation had taken its toll on the local landscape. While physical challenging, the ride presented more of a mental obstacle given that I was riding almost 40 miles in rural Ecuador. While several buses passed that I could have easily gotten on, I was determined to complete the ride. I finally arrived in Puyol at about 1:45 PM. While Puyol itself was far from impressive, I was glad to have completed my goal in a reasonable timeframe. After getting a quick snack, I rode straight to the bus terminal in the center of the city and paid $3 USD to take an hour long journey back to Baños. In the end, I didn’t really find the trail physically difficult. However, the weather and road conditions kept the ride from being as leisurely as I wanted it to be.
Puyopongo Jungle (Banos)- Normally I avoid packaged tours, but the owner of my hotel offered me a deal for an all-day tour of the Puyopongo Jungle for only $30 USD. I figured it is was good value and would give me something to do on a Friday. After being picked up at 9 AM from my hotel by one of the locals in his sedan, I was dropped off at the corner where I was picked up by a passing bus. I was provided a pair of boots as I got on the bus and took a seat amongst the 13 other people who had already been picked up. The tour group consisted of mostly Ecuadorians with three women from Chile. We drove towards Puyo before stopping at the same lookout I visited during my bike ride earlier in the week. At the lookout, I bought 3 tangerines for .75 cents. The driver took us about 30 minutes north of Puyo where the Puyopono Jungle was located. We stopped right outside a village and got into a canoe where we were taken 10 kilometers down the Pastaza River. While it was a nice trip, I wasn’t blown away as I have many canoe trips during my travels. When we got off the boats, a local woman gave us samples of her “Amazon Whiskey” which didn’t taste that great (although I’m not the best judge of quality alcohol). After the sampling, we were driven to the base of a lookout point where we did a 10 minute hike up to a restaurant that was in the middle of being constructed. However, it provided an excellent view of surrounding jungle. We then were able to try out a rope swing which allowed us to literally swing over the valley. I found it to be quite an adrenaline rush and memorable experience worth the price of the tour by itself. After being provided a basic plate lunch, the group hiked to a nice waterfall deep in the jungle. The hike really wasn’t that difficult (the boots were definitely useful) but the three Chilean women weren’t really in great shape so it took us over an hour to finally reach the waterfall as the group had to constantly take breaks. Given that it had just rained, the waterfall was pretty impressive and the water was clear (although cold). We swam for about a half an hour before making our way back to the bus. About an hour later we were on our way to the last stop, the local village where we took the canoes that morning. We went inside the village where the local children performed a local dance and painted our faces. I ended up buying the kids some cheap cookies and giving them the two tangerines that I had left from that morning. I also got the chance to shoot a tribal blowgun and try some mysterious Yuca based concoction. After visiting the village, we made the nearly 2-hour trip back to Baños arriving at about 8PM after nearly 12-hour day. Overall, although the tour was your stereotypical tourist experience, I felt that the quantity and quality of the activities made it worth the $30 USD that I paid.
El Parque Nacional Cajas (Cuenca)- Cuenca’s biggest attraction was actually not located in the city itself. El Parque Nacional Cajas is a vast national park located about 45 minutes northwest along the highway which connects Cuenca with Guayaquil. Only having a couple of days in the city, I wanted to make sure I took advantage of the opportunity to explore it. I chose to go on a Wednesday. I woke up about 630 AM and took a taxi to the bus terminal. Even though the taxi ride supposedly cost $1.20 the driver cited a “$1.50” minimum fare which was no where to be found. Having take a few taxis before in the city, I had not run into such rule. I called him out on it but ultimately decided .30 cents wasn’t worth any more of my time. I arrived at the terminal and got various answers on how to catch the bus to Cajas. I was finally able to find the right driver and hopped on the bus right before it left at 8AM. The trip took about and hour and cost $2 USD. However, I was dropped off right in front of the ranger station that I was required to register at. I was immediately greeted by the giant lake I had seen in the reviews. Not surprisingly, it was a lot more chilly in the park than back in Cuenca. Although I had heard a passport was required (I only had a picture of it on my phone), the lady at the station never asked for it and just had me type my information in the computer. More importantly, there was no cost to enter the park. Exploring the park was a “choose your own adventure” as there were about 10 different trails of varying difficulty and time. Not wanting to hike for 9 hours, I chose Ruta 1 which I had thought was only a 3.5 hour hike based on what I had read on the sign. Much to my surprise, after walking about 1.5 km to the first sign, I found out it was actually a 5 hour and 50 minute hike (it had 29 different stopping points along the trail). I still decided to go along that trail until I felt like turning around. While the trail itself provided many picturesque moments and was not physically difficult, the path was extremely muddy which made slipping a continuous possibility (I actually slipped pretty bad on my way back up). I ended up hiking for an about an hour and a half and got to “Point 8” of the trail where I was able to take a picture of another small lagoon and a small waterfall before heading back to the ranger station. I turned back because I was tired, hungry, and pretty bored of the views at that point. However, I could definitely tell why Cajas is a must-see for those passing through Cuenca, especially those who are a fan of the outdoors. It took me about an hour to get back to the ranger station and another 20 minutes to catch a passing bus back to Cuenca. Although I didn’t even do half of one of the shorter trails, I still spent a solid 5 hours at the park.
Manta- I originally was not planning on going to Manta, a mid-size Ecuadorian coastal city about three hours north of Guayaquil. However, I changed my mind when I had decided to head back to the United States rather than continue my journey into Peru. In order to get an extra week out of my trip, I added it to the itinerary and I am glad I did. From Montañita, I caught a passing bus to Manta which cost $4 USD and took about 4 hours. Initially, I was confused when I arrived because the bus terminal was on the outskirts of the city and the surrounding area of my hotel looked nothing like the sunny beach destination found through a Google search. However, I would go on to discover that despite the hotel being nice it was in a horrible location. Despite this fact, I ended up staying for 2 nights because I was tired and I wanted time to look for something better. I ended up moving to a nice little bed and break in the upscale neighborhood of Barbasquillo. While it was also outside of the center, my room had an ocean view there was a really nice commercial plaza within walking distance. As for the city itself, I really enjoyed Manta. In fact, if you offered me an opportunity to live in Ecuador, I would choose to live in Manta. Aside from the tropical weather, the beach was clean and the water was more pleasant to swim in than the beach towns down south (Salinas, Montañita). It was a small enough city to where the public transportation was cheap and simple (only 17 buses which are conveniently numbered 1-17) to get around. However, it was big enough to where there was Uber capability available if needed. The city’s main attraction was Mall del Pacifico which was a four story modern commercial center with high-end shopping, upscale restaurants, and a movie theatre. It was conveniently located across from the tourist beach. Manta reminded me of Fort Lauderdale in that it was nice but not overwhelming like Guayaquil. I stayed in Manta for about a week mostly hanging out in my ocean-view room and shopping at Mall del Pacifico.
What Went Wrong
What Went Right
Verdict: I enjoyed Ecuador very much and felt that I experienced so much despite not going to the country's most popular destination. I would say Ecuador is easily in the top three countries that I have visited in the region. I would point out the culture on the coast (Guayaquil, Manta, Salinas) drastically differs from that inland (Otavalo, Quito, Cuenca). In my opinion, the inland is better for tourism while the coast is more suitable for long term living. Obviously, I did and saw a lot more things in Ecuador than what is written on here so if you have any questions either comment below or send me a DM (I also have several videos and pictures).
submitted by smkAce0921 to solotravel [link] [comments]


2019.06.09 09:14 CapitanKomamura What are the Borg? - Latin american leftist thoughts on The Best of Both Worlds

First, a few favours and a few introductions:
Favours: Correct my English as needed (I assimilated this language secondarily), use google translator como todos, and tell me if you are going to reference future episodes or series. I am discussing the Borg as presented in the TNG episodes that make the two parter "The Best of Both Worlds". I don’t care of spoilers about this particular issue, but I want to know if you are going to make them.

Introductions (skip assimilation of data as needed, drone)

Science fiction and political models: I think that many good works of speculative fiction are above taking sides in debates like "capitalism-socialism" or "first vs third world". If a work is complex and deep enough, it can point to themes that go beyond these distinctions to all humanity.
We live in a society with Orwellian aspects like 1984. That doesn't make Google and Facebook communist, the totalitarian all-seeing nature of these institutions derives purely from their capitalist nature. HBO's Chernobyl is also a good example: Policy makers' corruption, apathy and bureaucratic blame throwing vs. scientific facts and our survival is not an exclusively soviet problem. The climate change debate is the same, and is a capitalist issue.
I think that taking these works and saying "communism bad" is a waste. Same with TNG. And if you are going to bash socialism at least don't use leftist literature like 1984. [1]
Federation, Borg, Soviets and Communism: I would say that a fully automated future where people is free to choose what they want to do and better themselves is a pretty Marxist ideal. The sXIX anarchist and socialist intellectuals were one of the first to entertain the idea of a society with minimal labor, where technology brings equality and freedom. [2] But it is not very useful to compare it directly to soviet socialism. To properly talk about these topics we need to make distinctions between means and goals. [3]
The Federation society can be seen as a manifestation of what Wikipedia calls a Communist Society, the final ideal utopian stage of our evil plan. The leftist discussion is how we get there. Violent revolution? Political Reform? Capitalism? Socialism? Cannabis and LSD? None of those things are necessarily associated to that goal. To me, it is kind of pointless to ask if the Federation is socialist or whatever, they already got to the utopic end goal. They are sort of a post-ideology society.
The fact that they are a republic doesn’t rule out the possibility that they are communists. What do you think is the meaning of the R in USSR? A soviet is a group of people that gather to vote and discuss things. The socialist ideal is a democratic republic, and the soviet revolutionaries were taking the example of the French Revolution, and for a time they followed that model.
The soviets definitely saw themselves as the Federation, and for many years there were debates on how to spread soviet socialism to the rest of the countries “For the Happiness of All Mankind”. They saw themselves as the natural stage of societal development. This hubris is not a soviet invention, it is much, much older. Save these ones for later, comrade.
And we can't say "The federation is not communist because they are individualist" because the point of this ideal communism is a world where everyone is free to pursuit their passions and dreams and there are little obligations. Socialism and communism are, in their theory and, let’s say, intended application, very individualistic ideologies. Collectivism is just a means to reach a stage where individuals are truly free.
Yes, I also don’t think that the massively oppressive and totalitarian soviet state was a very good method to gain individual and economical freedom, they seemed to get massively lost in the way. I got my Chavez, Guevara, Morales, Lula, Kirnchner and Peron T-shirts but I am not an idiot. In fact similar kinds of leftist critique to the soviet system are the basis of Orwell’s novels.
We can say that the Borg collective is a collectivist nightmare, but they don’t get the prestigious socialist or communist label because they should be striving for the freedom and self-determination of their individuals, not their destruction. If the individuals are being exploited, you cannot call it communism because communism strives to end all forms of exploitation. In fact, one could imagine a socialist revolution inside the Borg collective, that dismantles their hive mind and lets free individuals take democratic control of their cubic means of production.
So the Federation is even more leftist than the friggin Borg. We call this maneuver: “correr por izquierda”.
So I don’t see the Borg as a critique of a particular political system. I see them as a bane that can happen to any powerful government, no matter how democratic or benevolent they strive to be.
Cultural appropriation: This is a morally neutral term. One culture taking practices from another is not inherently bad (Pizza is a good example. By the way USA cooks it wrong). It is bad when it is bad to a "lesser" culture, when it contributes to exploitation, extinction or other forms of dominance or oppression. It is only wrong if it prejudices people.
So, having said all of this... What are the Borg, what do they mean?
These are my two centavos. I know I am not saying nothing ground breaking here, I just want to say it with examples from my "first person" perspective. And sorry for mixing the pronouns, as a white person living in a third world country, I kinda have one foot in each side of the oppression field SO I CAN'T FULLY VIRTUE SIGNAL.

Our context

When you watch TNG in a PC with pirated windows, in an Argentinean suburb, between free public college classes waiting for the elections and the end of a chronic economic crisisTM, you are bound to make different interpretations.
"We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile."
As an Argentinean, that´s scary as fuck. I'll give some examples.
"We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile." - Some whiter imperialistic humanoids
Football (the sport where really use your foot to kick a real ball) is the national sport of our country, one of the staples of our culture, yet our best players are playing in European teams. Kids growing in villas miseria and favelas dream with travelling to Europe to win millions, some never look back when they get there. Muhammad Ali's life story illustrates a similar phenomenon happening in the USA: they segregated PoC but added their biological distinctiveness to their sport results.
"El secreto de sus ojos" won an Oscar to best foreign movie, yet it was unmarketable in north America, so it got an "adaptation", like many works of Latin American art. And here I am, watching hundreds of Hollywood movies with subtitles because I have to learn (obligatorily in school) and appreciate the English language, it will "open doors" to me and "give me possibilities". The lingua franca of the world. El segundo lenguaje más hablado por la humanidad me abre más puertas a más paises. Ah, pero no son los paises buenos.
In the nineties, we applied the economics we were taught in North America: we "dollarized" our economy and that lead to a huge economic crisis that we are still trying to solve. But for a few years we were in paradise [4], we could travel to Miami and other really important shit. One of the aspects of that crisis, was the "fuga de cerebros": thousands of scientists had to emigrate to first world coutries to get work in their fields. [5] And then our government had to actively work to repatriate them.
The military-civilian dictatorship of the seventies was explicitly cultural (and about the economy and labor laws): they wanted to eliminate "subversive" ideas in the name of christian and western values, our "national identity" in the image of other nations. This and the majority of latin american dictatorships were orchestrated by the US [6] as part of Cold war's fight for global hegemony.
For the third word, communism and liberal capitalism were both oppresive, terrorific and exploitative. The methods varied, but the end was the same: assimilate (to the NATO or to the Warsaw pact), with dictatorships if necesary. Or as Orwell said: the future is a boot in your face, forever.
Many other events like those, in many places, are scenarios were third world countries have to struggle to keep and protect their cultural distinctiveness from being assimilated.
Now, let’s focus our view to the territory of my country:
While I write this, I am drinking a "native American" (different PC vocabulary here) beverage called "mate". Their inventors were almost exterminated and subjugated by the people that industrialized it and invented a coutry that has mate as a tradition. Many white people have native American names like "Nahuel" or "Ayelen", names of cultures that are still fighting for their very existence.
Not very long ago, our $100 bill commemorated the "Conquest of the Desert" [7]. We needed an army to conquer the so called desert because the natives were living there, and we needed to conquer it because they were uncivilized and useless barbarians whose deaths were necessary for the development of our country. We fought for independence from the empires, but we continued their campaign of extermination and exploitation for them. We civilized them and now they are part of a better country. They have a holliday, October 12th.
There is a very… funny article in our national constitution: "Art- 25 El Gobierno Federal fomentará la inmigración europea; [...] e introducir y enseñar las ciencias y las artes.". Our very constitution literally assumes that the Europeans will improve our country with their knowledge and arts. The article is still fucking there. Oh, but the context is more complex than that, we were an under populated and under developed country, we needed people, we had many empty areas that we just made. We couldn’t assimilate the native peoples, they were attacking us (wonder why) and didn’t want to be part of the country, so we replaced them with other bodies we could assimilate, and assimilated them when we could.
We can add more to the biological part: Many foreign (mostly European) species are causing ecological problems in our ecosystems: from the beavers in Tierra del Fuego, to the pine trees that are expanding in the Córdoba Sierras, slowly replacing the native forests.
And I have to mention (going back to the international focus) the ecological impact of exporting grains to other more powerful countries: we almost cleared our territory from natural forests. In fact, for many years our country believed that being an exporter of cheap basic resources and an importer of expensive manufactured goods, when even the most basic calculations end with us losing. I understood this was bad in elementary school. “El granero del mundo they said” [8]. You can see stuff like that today when you think about the overseas cheap labor that developed countries exploit. Cultures adapted to serve.
I could go on, but I ran out of mate, which is the fuel of any intellectual pursuit here in the south cone. Sorta like coffee. Oh, where do you get your coffee from? [9]... Thought so. You buy coffee grains and sell Nestlé and Starbucks, clever humanoids.

The First of Both Worlds

To finish connecting all these horrendous and/or cringe worthy stuff with TNG, let’s take two phrases from the sack of flesh we call Picard, Locutus or Charles.
"I wonder if the Emperor [...] truly realized that the Roman Empire was about to fall. This is just another page in history, isn't it? Will this be the end of our civilization?" - Picard
C’mon, Jean-Luc! ¡Historia a marzo! The Borg aren't the barbarians, they are the Romans. Doing what the Romans did during centuries: assimilate others cultures and biologies to their ever growing empire. Decide what to keep of them and what to discard. Make them all the same. Their gods came from many places; their peoples were slaves and citizens from many regions of the world, all under the Roman Senate. They even gave you a latin name, Picard.
"Why do you resist? We only wish to raise quality of life for all species." - Locutus
Typical. They are baffled when people don't want to join them. They (pretend to) not understand. This is the point where I wanted to get.
People in the delta quadrant and in the thirld world were told that "The white humanoid’s ways are objectively better" by those same white humanoids. It is irrational and primitive to want an inferior way of life. Their economic models are better. No need to investigate when their science is already better. Their industries are better, no need to have our own, we can buy from them. The white humanoid’s way of life is better. Their language is better, don't worry if we burn all your written records, we translated them. We have schools where you are going to learn the history of a different nation, the real nation, ours. Democracy, we invented it! [10]
Just some caveats, if your skin is brown you'll have to wait centuries to vote and you have to work in the mines, and the rest of your history as cheap labor. Your culture will become a tourist commodity, consumed by the rich as an oddity; that is your place in our enlightened superior society. And we have the moral obligation to make you our slave because you cannot live in conditions we have defined as inferior and wrong.
Developed nations seem to think they have to be the world’s police and accountant (the economy, stupid!), they have to intervene and dominate the world because they are the good guys that know what is better for everyone, who gets to do what. No different than the Europeans that reached our coasts. And in both cases there was a moral obligationTM to do so, given by themselves and imposed to the other. The heathen natives that weren't dying in the silver mines of Mount Potosí were going to go to hell. Hell was not the depths of Mount Potosí where they worked till death, by the way, they meant the actual real Hell.
They know better. But weren't the worst genocides, the most devastating wars, fought amongst or perpetrated by the developed nations, when not directly linked to them? Why they can’t let us alone if we aren’t bothering anyone but ourselves? Who deemed them our teachers?
Themselves, they are the superior race or society, so everyone has to adapt to them, become like them. By force if necesary. Otherness is not acceptable because it makes integration harder. Freedom is not acceptable because the whiter humanoids are the ones who should allocate all the resources. This is necesary to perfect the rest of the humanoids.
To end my leftist third-Worldist ramblings: There is this scene: the Borg are augmenting Picard’s body and attaching Borg stuff to him and, as the cherry on top of the cake, as the pinnacle of subtelnes in methaphor, the Borg turn Picard's skin pale.
They make him whiter.
And he sheds a tear,
after becoming whiter,
because he is being assimilated,
to the whiter humanoids.
He misses freedom.
Ah, then we wonder if Star Trek has a progressive agenda or not. And the next episode's vineyards make everithing better. Those vineyards feels more like Mendoza, Argentina, than France.

TL;DR

In the 24th century the Borg are the "dark" side of the Federation, an evil twist of their ideals. A mirror image that is not meant to be. Like an alternate universe, almost just an intelectual exercise, introduced playingly by Q.
Integration to the Federation is peaceful, voluntary, both parties benefit and enrich themselves. And they have the prime directive because they know what happens when they go the Borg route, even a similar one: America, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Oceania. Borg assimilation is compulsory, because the Borg consider their way objectively better, it is necesary, and it is irrational and immoral to not comply. They see themselves as obligated to integrate the rest of the species that are living in inferior conditions. They know better.
In the real world there are countries with stronger economies, more stable governments, higher technology and better living standards. And more powerful militaries.
The Federation is the ideal those nations should strive for, the role they should take towards fellow humans that live inside and outside their societies. What we hope of them.
The Borg is the cruel reality that those nations created and create. Assimilation for assimilation’s sake. Discrimination and oppression of the other in the name of a fictitious perfection. Deletion of difference to enable exploitation and control. Destruction of freedom in the name of their invented morals.
The Borg aren’t my fear of communism, they are my fear of what the developed nations do to the rest of us.
I will finish with one of the best rappers of Latin America: Canserbero from Venezuela. This time I'll spare you from the google tricoder:
I took time rhyming my worry
giving protest and expressing my opinion
Now I want to give answers
for my doctrine is not a dogma, is a guide to action, yeah
¡Now! [We] have to read, have to understand, have to grow
have to attack without forgetting to defend
[We] have to change to make understand
that we are part of the world, not of the third [11]

Other pages in history

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Orwell
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-scarcity_economy#Marxism
[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_society
[4] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quBcP5KlTlo this one is just to scare you. Boy! We were going to get spaceships to Japan and Corea! What a bummer.
[5] https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuga_de_cerebros#El_caso_de_Argentina not the best link. But common knowledge, tho
[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Condor THEY STOLE OUR BIRD
[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conquest_of_the_Desert
[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_international_division_of_labour not the best article but is just to illustrate some ideas
[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_coffee_production
[10] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_elections_in_which_the_winner_lost_the_popular_vote just to ask why?
[11] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIr8DppExLM
submitted by CapitanKomamura to DaystromInstitute [link] [comments]


2019.06.07 22:41 UnavailableUsername_ Chavez and Maduro's "Socialist Bolivarian Revolution" are responsible for the crisis and problems in Venezuela: A chronology of 20 years of socialism destroying a country.

 

Chavez and Maduro's "Socialist Revolution" was responsible of the collapse of the Venezuela: A Chronology of 20 years of socialism destroying a country.

 
 
 
Chavez once promised "socialism or death", claiming that Venezuela needed to become socialist to become a prosper nation and that capitalism would only lead to collapse.
One has to wonder if he mixed both terms when making this claim. And that is because as of now, what once was a rich and wonderful country is now one of the poorest and most dangerous ones of the region at the border of collapse. Venezuela has reached the shocking number of 1,300,000% of annual inflation (not overall inflation) in November 2018 and the number keeps growing more and more.
But there is no doubt Chavez meant those words, he went as far as to proudly proclaim himself to be a Socialist, Bolivarian, Marxist and to start a "Bolivarian socialism revolution of the XXI Century" in Venezuela.
And Venezuela is a socialist country, a socialist country model controlled and regulated by the government.
But why so much inflation? Experts agree it is because goods shortage.
But why does this happen?
Because the socialist system destroyed the country.
 
 

Socialism in action: Expropriation and seizing of private property:

One of the core aspects of socialism is the restriction of private property. The state controls and owns the production supposedly to provide a better life for the citizens since "the state knows better".
Chavez dutifully followed this dogma, expropriating private property without any concern:
To those that STILL doubt that wasn't socialism, these 2 events are proof that it was:
Taking stuff from "the bourgeois" to give to the people, it doesn't get more socialist than that. Chavez was a big fan of take over what wasn't his and tell "fuck you" to the real owners.
This should be enough evidence it was socialism in action.
 
 

Core services seized for the revolution:

On 2007, the government adquired "Electricidad de Caracas", the biggest electricity company in Venezuela.
Actually, the government took possesion of 10 electrical companies from the private sector.
It didn't took much time for the electrical sector to be in crisis after being under socialist management. In 2009, Venezuela was in a big energy crisis with constant energy outages.
How constant they were?
We are talking of 6 massive power outages in the last 2 years (2007-2009)
How big they were?
Notably, in 2008, a power outage left 60% of Venezuela without electricity.
And like that, power outages continued into 2011 until the current year.
The situation of more than 10 years ago has only gotten worse.
On this year, Venezuela was without electricity for MORE THAN SIX ENTIRE DAYS.
Imagine that.
144 hours. Without electricity.
How were hospitals and clinics during this time? Doctors tried to help patients, specially one that needed an air machine, but without electricity there wasn't much they could do.
Each and every power outage is always blamed by the socialist government on the bourgeois or someone else, it's never their fault, even when experts constantly warned on 2010 that the electrical sector was at the border of collapse due to lack of proper management
 
 

The war of the socialist revolution against the free press.

A socialist regime always ends repressing the free press, and Venezuela was not going to be the exception.
I could be all day showing this, but let's go to the part where the revolution actually acts on their threats.
There are so many cases it would take a while to show all, up to 2017, over 60 media oulets including TV channels and radio were closed by the socialist revolution.
The internet is also censored by the bolivarian socialist revolution.
But it was not the media, journalist were detained, expulsed and even jailed!
 
 

The war of the socialist revolution against the free press: The "radiocide" in Venezuela.

The regime closed THIRTY-FOUR (34) radio stations in Venezuela, this event is known in venezuela as "the radiocide".
The 34 radio stations closed by the Venezuelan socialist revolution government were:
  1. Amazonas Radio - 1130 AM frequency.
  2. Anzoátegui Radio - 970 AM frequency.
  3. Anzoátegui Radio - 107,5 FM frequency.
  4. Bolívar City Radio - 96,9 FM frequency.
  5. Carabobo Radio - 100,1 FM frequency.
  6. Carabobo Radio - 100,1 FM frequency.
  7. Caracas (CNB) Radio - 102,3 FM frequency.
  8. Caracas (CNB) Radio - 92.9 FM frequency.
  9. Delta Amacuro Radio - 1270 AM frequency.
  10. Falcón Radio - 100,1 FM frequency.
  11. Falcón Radio - 96,1 FM frequency.
  12. Guárico Radio - 99.1 FM frequency.
  13. Mérida Radio - 106,3 FM frequency.
  14. Miranda Radio - 1520 AM frequency.
  15. Miranda Radio - Emisora FM frequency.
  16. Miranda Radio - 1550 AM frequency.
  17. Miranda Radio - 97,1 FM frequency.
  18. Miranda Radio - 92,1 FM frequency.
  19. Miranda Radio - 1230 AM frequency.
  20. Miranda Radio - 96,9 FM frequency.
  21. Nueva Esparta (Porlamar) Radio - 99,1 FM frequency.
  22. Nueva Esparta (Porlamar) Radio - 92,9 FM frequency.
  23. Nueva Esparta (Porlamar) Radio - 1140 AM frequency.
  24. Portuguesa Radio -1170 AM frequency.
  25. Sucre Radio - 103,3 FM frequency.
  26. Sucre Radio - 600 AM frequency.
  27. Táchira Radio - 730 AM frequency.
  28. Táchira Radio - 94,5 FM frequency.
  29. Vargas Radio - 106,9 FM frequency.
  30. Vargas Radio - 26 UHF frequency.
  31. Zulia Radio - 105,1 FM frequency.
  32. Zulia Radio - 102,1 FM frequency.
  33. Zulia Radio - 1430 AM frequency.
  34. Zulia Radio - 1300 AM frequency.
 
 

Socialization of the Venezuela's alimentary industries led to their failure:

Many claim it was only the oil to blame for Venezuela's problems.
This is a lie.
Chavez and Maduro's "Bolivarian socialist revolution of the XXI century" made an effort to destroy Venezuela's once prosperous industry.
The expropriation of businesses of the food industry lead to the alimentary crisis in venezuela, this is a well-known fact for experts and everyone that follows Venezuela situation.
The expropriation had an explicit socialist goal, as it was proudly announced things like bakery companies being seized and given "to the people".
It is often said "Venezuela is not socialism because 70% of the industry is private!!" by pro-Chavez/pro-Maduro people, but the information comes from the central bank of Venezuela. They claim the state ownership is the same as before Chavez took power in 1998...anyone can realize that's a BIG lie after reading this post and seeing how many businesses were seized since 1998.
In reality Chavez expropiated over 1,200 companies in just 10 years, and that without count Maduro's expropriations. So the "70% is owned by the private sector" number of 1998 when Chavez started his government does not apply anymore on 2019.
And of that number, the socialist government led to collapse over 1,000 seized businesses.
The crisis in the vegetable and agricultural industry caused by socialism:
On 2009, he seized part of the rice industry, staple food for the venezuelan people, from foreign and national private investments for the glory of the bolivarian socialist economic model.
Then the government proceeded to embark on a quest to seize all fertilizer businesses they could, among them the companies Agroisleña, KOMSA, Peviquen and Fetrinitro, the biggest distributers of fertilizers in the entire country, diminishing the private investment in the country.
Speaking of Agroisleña, when the socialist government expropriated "Agroisleña", an agricultural supplier of seeds, manure, fertilizers and etc in 2010, they proceeded to rename it to "Agropatria" to put emphasis it was socialized and popular property.
The new "popular-owned" Agropatria socialism management catastrophically failed, which lead to an increase in 700% in the price of products like rice.
And just like socialist ideologues propose, Venezuelan government made a law of "lazy lands", which gave the government the right to expropriate fields and lands they arbitrarily considered were not producing as much as the government wanted, for the benefit of the rural population and the glory of the revolution.
Experts claim the socialization of the a key agricultural business is what started the food crisis in Venezuela, still, that didn't stopped Maduro from keep doing the exact same thing by expropriating ANOTHER fertilizer company.
The crisis in the meat and dairy industry caused by the socialist revolution:
Among many, MANY cattle and dairy businesses, Chavez called to expropriate the "Compañia Inglesa" land, a British-owned cattle ranch of over 290,000 hectares for the people. In fact, over 3,600,000 hectares of cattle-farming land have been seized as of 2011, the number is probably much much bigger as of 2018.
The result of the socialist management of these cattle ranch and expropriation of cattle caused a massive crisis in the production of these meat and dairty goods, which lead to an increment of 700%~900% in the price of milk and meat
The crisis in the fish, seafood and sea industry caused by the socialist revolution:
Following the trend of the agro-industry, Chavez ordered the army the expropriation of ports and fishing fleet to socialize them, also giving the order of "send to Jail whoever disagrees!" and once again, the socialization lead to the collapse of fishing fleets and the paralyzation of the production.
Not only that, 300 ships, 29 towing ships, 25 piers and 5 shipyards were seized for the glory of the socialist revolution too.
 

Socialism implementation destroyed the industry:

Not only the core alimentary sectors were affected, the overall industry in Venezuela suffered because of the socialist revolution.
The revolutionary government wanted to take over the entire cement business from the private sector, obtaining the swiss Holcim, the french cement Lafarge and when unable to reach a deal to buy Cemex, a mexican productor of cement, simply expropriates it.
After that, the socialization lead to the industry to reach red numbers, producing 41% LESS than what they did before they were expropriated. This has lead to a raise of 400% in the price of cement in the country.
The government seized businesses randomly and explicitly for the revolution.
In 2010, Venezuelan government seized glass-container maker private company Owens-Illinois. The reason? In words of chavez: "Revolution and more revolution!"
The mining business was also not forgotten by the revolution, The government seized private mining business on the south of venezuela, which like the rest of businesses taken away failed spectacularly, putting ANOTHER of venezuela's industry on crisis.
The bolivarian socialist government also ordered the nationalization of metallurgic industry and even more importantly the expropiation of the "Sidor" metallurgy in Venezuela one of the key industries of the country.
Once again, after the socialization the metallurgy industry was put in crisis to the point that what once was a vibrant steel factory is now a ghost town.
With this kind of industry destruction, it is not surprise the production of steel in venezuela is in crisis.
Plenty of foreign companies had to leave venezuela because of the socialist bolivarian revolution makes impossible for them to keep producing goods:
Be because they simply cannot keep producing goods, they don't have the necessary ingredients or simply the government keeps meddling with controls, multiple foreign business simply had to leave Venezuela.
 

The oil industry:

Chavez regime took over the oil industry and it lead to it's collapse.
In 2007, chavez took over the orinoco oil projects estimated in 30 BILLION dollars driving away a lot of foreign investment from France, Norway, etc. Chavez was effectively gaining control of the oil in Venezuela, as part of the socialist revolution.
And, of course, he drove it to the ground with exorbitant socialists taxes in 2008, oil taxes up to 60%, making things harder for what was remaining of the private investment in venezuela's oil industry.
The next year, on 2009, Chavez regime gets even more desperate as socialism policies fail, so the government seizes another oil company from what he called "bourgeois owners" for the glory of the revolution.
Not having enough, on 2010 Venezuela's regime seized 11 oil rigs from a foreign company.
And there is more...
I could be all day mentioning how many companies Chavez expropriated for the glory of socialism.
Up to 2009, Chavez revolution expropriated 76 oil companies.
76. Oil. Companies. Expropiated.
All this socialism surely would work well, right?
WRONG.
What was the result of all that expropriation?
  • Lack of funds.
  • Lack of payments.
  • Lack of workers.
  • Lack of maintenance.
  • Lack of production.
Why? Because Chavez knew literally nothing of the business and mismanaged it.
Expropriations leads the PDVSA to the border of bankrupt.
The collapse of the PDVSA (Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company) after the Bolivarian socialist revolution.
The situation is so ridiculous but the socialist revolution is stubborn, Maduro claimed he wanted an even more socialist PDVSA and ordered more production. and in the following months the military took control of the estate PDVSA.
 

The price-control of the socialist revolution make the problem even worse:

The state controls the distribution of goods with socialism, and Chavez/Maduro regime is no exception. Their regime is known to impose price controls to the goods the people desperately want, which leads to more shortages.
Venezuelan Price Controls which Lead to Predictable Shortages. According to a recent survey, 60% of Venezuelans shed at least 11 kilograms in weight during the last year due to malnutrition because of the shortages and overall lack of availability of food.
 
 
It took me quite a while to make this post, but in conclusion:
Claim Venezuela's problems are not because of Maduro and Chavez "Socialism Bolivarian Revolution" is being willfully ignorant at best, and completely evil if still believe so after reading this.
Chavez and Maduro meticulously focused in fuck pretty much all of Venezuela's once prosperous industries by taking the private property away, threatening people on live TV and even ordering to jail whoever opposed, all for their "Socialism Bolivarian Revolution" , which lead to the current situation.
Edit: Wow, thanks for the gold! Edit2: Thanks for the platinum! Edit3: Thanks for the silver! Edit4: Thanks for the second platinum!
submitted by UnavailableUsername_ to vzla [link] [comments]


2019.03.27 11:27 cuavas MAME 0.208

MAME 0.208

Today we’re proud to bring you MAME 0.208. There are some big improvements to SunPlus SPG240/SPG280 audio emulation. Not only does this greatly improve the enjoyability of the JAKKS Pacific TV games, it’s also timed perfectly for the addition of the Fisher-Price I Can Play Piano music teaching system. That’s not the only newly supported music system this month: we’ve added Jumping Popira, and Popira 2 has been promoted to working. Continuing with the audio theme, moralrecordings fixed BSMT 2000 4-bit ADPCM sample playback, cam900 added support for the VRC7 as a separate device with its unique instrument patches, and schnitzeltony improved Atari POKEY performance substantially. Newly supported TV games include Disney, Disney and Friends, Justice League and SpongeBob SquarePants – The Fry Cook Games from JAKKS Pacific, and XaviX titles Geigeki Go Go Shooting, Gururin World and MX Dirt Rebel. You’ll be able to enjoy the XaviX-based games even more now with improvements to the colour palette.
The Nintendo Game & Watch progress has continued with the addition of Balloon Fight (new wide screen), Fire Attack, Octopus, Parachute and Turtle Bridge. You’ll notice some big software list updates this month. The TOSEC Spectrum Plus 3 disk images have been imported, Spectrum Opus support has been added with software from World of Spectrum, and SDX floppy controller support has been added to the Memotech MTX along with a corresponding software list. The PlayStation, PC-98 and Saturn software lists have been updated with testing results and new dumps, original Apple II disk images have been added as they’ve been made available, another batch of Japanese e-kara cartridges has landed, and coverage of Spanish V.Smile releases has been improved. Speaking of software, AmatCoder has fixed a number of issues affecting Amstrad CPC software. The long-neglected Bally Astrocade home system has had tape and lightpen support added in this release.
On the arcade side, we’ve added Atari’s TTL-based Rebound, early English releases of Karate Champ, an earlier version of Nihon System’s Omega, and world releases of DJ Boy and Gemini Wing. In changes you probably won’t notice, we’ve switched the toolchain used for building official Windows binary releases from GCC 7 to GCC 8, and a new tools package has been made available.
As always, you can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to cade [link] [comments]


2019.03.27 11:24 cuavas MAME 0.208

MAME 0.208

Today we’re proud to bring you MAME 0.208. There are some big improvements to SunPlus SPG240/SPG280 audio emulation. Not only does this greatly improve the enjoyability of the JAKKS Pacific TV games, it’s also timed perfectly for the addition of the Fisher-Price I Can Play Piano music teaching system. That’s not the only newly supported music system this month: we’ve added Jumping Popira, and Popira 2 has been promoted to working. Continuing with the audio theme, moralrecordings fixed BSMT 2000 4-bit ADPCM sample playback, cam900 added support for the VRC7 as a separate device with its unique instrument patches, and schnitzeltony improved Atari POKEY performance substantially. Newly supported TV games include Disney, Disney and Friends, Justice League and SpongeBob SquarePants – The Fry Cook Games from JAKKS Pacific, and XaviX titles Geigeki Go Go Shooting, Gururin World and MX Dirt Rebel. You’ll be able to enjoy the XaviX-based games even more now with improvements to the colour palette.
The Nintendo Game & Watch progress has continued with the addition of Balloon Fight (new wide screen), Fire Attack, Octopus, Parachute and Turtle Bridge. You’ll notice some big software list updates this month. The TOSEC Spectrum Plus 3 disk images have been imported, Spectrum Opus support has been added with software from World of Spectrum, and SDX floppy controller support has been added to the Memotech MTX along with a corresponding software list. The PlayStation, PC-98 and Saturn software lists have been updated with testing results and new dumps, original Apple II disk images have been added as they’ve been made available, another batch of Japanese e-kara cartridges has landed, and coverage of Spanish V.Smile releases has been improved. Speaking of software, AmatCoder has fixed a number of issues affecting Amstrad CPC software. The long-neglected Bally Astrocade home system has had tape and lightpen support added in this release.
On the arcade side, we’ve added Atari’s TTL-based Rebound, early English releases of Karate Champ, an earlier version of Nihon System’s Omega, and world releases of DJ Boy and Gemini Wing. In changes you probably won’t notice, we’ve switched the toolchain used for building official Windows binary releases from GCC 7 to GCC 8, and a new tools package has been made available.
As always, you can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]


2019.03.27 11:23 cuavas MAME 0.208

MAME 0.208

Today we’re proud to bring you MAME 0.208. There are some big improvements to SunPlus SPG240/SPG280 audio emulation. Not only does this greatly improve the enjoyability of the JAKKS Pacific TV games, it’s also timed perfectly for the addition of the Fisher-Price I Can Play Piano music teaching system. That’s not the only newly supported music system this month: we’ve added Jumping Popira, and Popira 2 has been promoted to working. Continuing with the audio theme, moralrecordings fixed BSMT 2000 4-bit ADPCM sample playback, cam900 added support for the VRC7 as a separate device with its unique instrument patches, and schnitzeltony improved Atari POKEY performance substantially. Newly supported TV games include Disney, Disney and Friends, Justice League and SpongeBob SquarePants – The Fry Cook Games from JAKKS Pacific, and XaviX titles Geigeki Go Go Shooting, Gururin World and MX Dirt Rebel. You’ll be able to enjoy the XaviX-based games even more now with improvements to the colour palette.
The Nintendo Game & Watch progress has continued with the addition of Balloon Fight (new wide screen), Fire Attack, Octopus, Parachute and Turtle Bridge. You’ll notice some big software list updates this month. The TOSEC Spectrum Plus 3 disk images have been imported, Spectrum Opus support has been added with software from World of Spectrum, and SDX floppy controller support has been added to the Memotech MTX along with a corresponding software list. The PlayStation, PC-98 and Saturn software lists have been updated with testing results and new dumps, original Apple II disk images have been added as they’ve been made available, another batch of Japanese e-kara cartridges has landed, and coverage of Spanish V.Smile releases has been improved. Speaking of software, AmatCoder has fixed a number of issues affecting Amstrad CPC software. The long-neglected Bally Astrocade home system has had tape and lightpen support added in this release.
On the arcade side, we’ve added Atari’s TTL-based Rebound, early English releases of Karate Champ, an earlier version of Nihon System’s Omega, and world releases of DJ Boy and Gemini Wing. In changes you probably won’t notice, we’ve switched the toolchain used for building official Windows binary releases from GCC 7 to GCC 8, and a new tools package has been made available.
As always, you can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]


2019.02.11 00:53 LordDeathScum Degradation of state

I live currently in Maracaibo, Zulia (its in venezuela) and wanted to explain various issues that affect our daily lives. And the continuous collapse of our society.
If you want i can start anywhere and with facts and in some accounts first hand experience! Because in reddit people seem to have the misconception that it is only "a propaganda attack" and maduro is in a way "legitimate".Both total bullshit. Why you ask? well he cheated and the program that runs the elections. He used Smartmatic the main program that supervises and recollects the votes of the venezuelan people .The company admits That the latest series of elections were a sham, This system has been in the venezuelan election system for a long time so There is a strong possiblity That various elections of the Venezuelan people Might have been rigged.
Elections-Contradictions
Of course they only admitted the latest frauds because they want to implement this election system in other country's.
https://www.google.com/amp/www.el-nacional.com/amp/noticias/politica/smartmatic-denuncia-manipulacion-eleccion-constituyente_196658 https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://es.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smartmatic&ved=2ahUKEwj0loLd1K7gAhXGslkKHYOeCdIQFjAAegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw3tY6xKh5vm6UFRAN3fLsBn
Hell few people support maduro on an international level, but very few seem to be Venezuelans.
You can find a lot of similar videos like this online. https://www.instagram.com/p/BttUNhEAtzk/?utm_source=ig_share_sheet&igshid=1wvbo88wel3eo
https://es.scribd.com/document/398636469/Hercon-81-9-de-venezolanos-reconoce-a-Juan-Guaido-como-primer-mandatario-de-Venezuela#from_embed
81.9% of consulted partys agree that juan guaido is their president.
Size of sample: 999 Voters Method of Recolection: Telephone Test Subjects: Population male or Female over 18 years old % of error =3.4%
https://es.scribd.com/document/373114761/Resultados-Encuesta-Meganalisis-Venezuela-Febrero-2018-Prest-Corta
a lot later but still relevant with info on population Poll Moderater: MegaAnalisis total population: 1.090 Process of choseing population: Random male and female population Chosen at random one consultation per house hold.
79.5% percent of the people asked want Nicolas maduro to leave. 80.7% of the population did not trust the presidential elections that was going on. 80.2% Did not agree that Maduro should rerun for presidential election again
Of the oposition what members do you least trust: Henry falcon won with 30% (noted that he was the oposition in the presidential election)
As you can see the general overview is that The great majority of the Venezuelan people agree that Juan Guaido is our elected president, For americans i know how hard it is to grasp the idea of how it is done but for the eyes of the Venezuelan It was out there for the crowd to see.
The CNE is the Consejo Nacional Electoral the ruling body that oversees the Elections of the venezuelan people
IT HAS TO BE AN IMPARTIAL BODY DUE TO THE FACT THAT IT OVERSEES NATIONAL ELECTIONS. IT HAS ITS OWN JURISDICTION IN 1997 LAWS WERE MADE TO MAKE IT THE ABSOLUTE BODY TO SUPERVISE ELECTIONS.
The president of the CNE by law for a clean election has to have no political inclination and mantain itself neutral obviously
Since 2003 Since Fransico Carrasquero (2003-2004) Every appointed CNE ruler has had tendencies to support chavez, Carrasquero being the least known. He held the position since 2003-2004 have nither been Impartial Nor FAIR.
Fransico Carrasquero implemented the Famous Smartmatic a software automatic system that counted the votes of the Venezuelan Population for elections. Who later became a puppet for chavez in the tribunal supremo de justicia in 2008 (totally impartial)
https://elpais.com/diario/2008/09/19/internacional/1221775204_850215.html
With Jorge Rodriguez as Rector principal during Carrasqueros era, who later became president of CNE during 2005. Then he became in 2007 Vice-President of Hugo Chavez (conflict of interest)
After that Tibisay Lucena comes in She was rector principal during Jorge rodriguez era, After this she mantained a monopoly on the election system being president form 2006-2019.
WHAT!!! a total monopoly for so many years.... yes, and you wonder why the polls say that venezuelan do not trust the venezuelan election system.
Who is The MUCH HATED TIBISAY LUCENA?
A sociologist and know sympathizerof the left since her years in the university and right now living with luxury thanks to the goverment. https://dolartoday.com/entre-viajes-y-lujos-conoce-la-buena-vida-socialista-de-las-mujeres-del-chavismo/
So how do you Win a race where they chose the winner, even before the race starts? The polls never worked on a Venezuelan Election
I always remember stalin's quote when i think about our Venezuelan Elections

I consider it completely unimportant who in the party will vote, or how; but what is extraordinarily important is this — who will count the votes, and how.

NATIONAL SITUATION
Ok hmmm where do i even start to describe the dire situation my country is in? Lets make a massive review from what i've read, seen from accounts of friends, and the news ( because of course as a dictator you never want the real news to leak out).
CENSORSHIP
He shuts down the local news with conatel (goverment information supervition agency) daily to make sure, or a at least try to cover the truth from being know to the general population.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://ipysvenezuela.org/2018/07/01/emisoras-en-vilo-conatel-cerro-40-estaciones-en-2017-por-motivos-de-censura/&ved=2ahUKEwifg-7V0q7gAhWnt1kKHVAtBYgQFjAAegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw0AZCbVMgP5E07OjB09rTyy
Sadly one of my favourite talk shows was also shut down due to the radio station being censored to conatel.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.ntn24.com/america-latina/venezuela/conatel-cerro-una-de-las-emisoras-de-radio-mas-escuchada-del-zulia-953-fm%3Famp&ved=2ahUKEwifg-7V0q7gAhWnt1kKHVAtBYgQFjABegQIARAB&usg=AOvVaw0MOIcCzXeXXC-2pDSf7ccp&cf=1
MEDICINE/ HEALTH SITUATION
well I can talk of this from first hand experience because my girlfriend is working en el hospital del universitario. A structure that was resembled to be a model of a Canadian hospital ( well legend says it was like this hell they say that the company they paid was to resemble a canadian hospital )
https://es.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospital_Universitario_de_Maracaibo
Do you know we have regular blackouts? ohh but not your normal black outs. 2 hour programmed black outs and sometimes, non-programmed black outs. Or sometimes 8 hour long blackouts.
Imagine my girlfriend ventilating a 10 year old kid and taking turns with another doctor because of the failing electrical system.
http://efectococuyo.com/la-humanidad/mas-de-ocho-horas-duro-primer-apagon-general-en-el-estado-zulia-en-2019/
http://cronica.uno/mi-nieto-no-tenia-problemas-del-corazon-fallo-la-luz-eso-fue-lo-que-paso/
That is if there is a doctor! i mean there are in some hospitals, but not all of them. My GF is super overworked due to the lack of staff because of the Exodus Doctor have been fleeing the country. Sometimes coming home crying from the conditionas she is working in, I admire her dedication but it is messed up to have to see on a daily basis people dieing From soemthing that is preventable.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.el-nacional.com/noticias/sociedad/personal-clinicas-maracaibo-disminuyo_254864&ved=0ahUKEwiX_bvzyK7gAhUOnlkKHYonAe8QqQIIOigBMAU&usg=AOvVaw3IE8fipzCIigGGBznyzzxf https://www.instagram.com/p/BtrA6Z1ACae/?utm_source=ig_share_sheet&igshid=zbr935r26k5p
Or if you have reactive (chemicals not sure what to call it) to be able to do any required medical test. Of course this varies from time to time. But 90% of the time you will not be able to do the medical tests you need. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.panorama.com.ve/ciudad/Especialista-Escasez-de-reactivos-es-de-95-en-hospitales-20180820-0026.html&ved=0ahUKEwiX_bvzyK7gAhUOnlkKHYonAe8QqQIIQCgBMAc&usg=AOvVaw2OZrDLc-wZZ9zME7EfB_3y
FOOD/HUNGEFAMINE
Lets talk about the food issues that there seems to be a misconception, yes there is food. But very expensive to the average Venezuelan due to that fact that we import everything you wonder why? well here we go!
lets go to the main area were us Venezuelans mostly suffer FOOD. This is the biggest concern for the average venezuelan household: will i e able to feed my family today?. Food production in the country is a huge problem, and not everyone suffers from it that is false even i admit it. Thank god never have but my diet has really changed from semi expensive items (like sasuage,Candy , peperoni you get the picture) to just the basic foods. https://www.google.com/amp/s/elpais.com/elpais/2018/02/23/inenglish/1519384349_718243.amp.html https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-food/venezuelans-report-big-weight-losses-in-2017-as-hunger-hits-idUSKCN1G52HA
Essentially the poor and middle class are skipping meals, the nutrition of venezuelans is now based mostly on carbohydrates. Protien is expensive, Maybe the mst expensive thin to buy!
61.2 % OF OUR POPULATION GO TO SLEEP HUNGRY
To give you an idea minimum wage is currently at 19.800. 30 eggs cost at least 8.000bsf . Half a minimum wage of a worker, Imagine that you work just to eat and still dont have enough money to fulfill that. Thousands upon thousands of Venezuelan family's are in this situation and it is unbearable.
But its the goverment fault! WHY you ask and HOW?
Chavez and maduro through the process of expropriation took thousands of productive agricultural farms and made them completly unproductive. http://www.el-nacional.com/noticias/economia/gobierno-expropio-mas-millones-hectareas-estan-improductivas_231096
Hell there were no conditions for the ones they did not expropriate. So the other farmers protested and guess what!? Boom he also took thier lands just for protesting. Of course just to clarify they did not tak all the farms, just the bigest and most important ones. At the hands of the goverment they ruined the production of these stolen lands.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://es.panampost.com/sabrina-martin/2017/05/23/dictadura-de-venezuela-expropio/amp/&ved=2ahUKEwjV-MyrtIzgAhVFPK0KHVvUCxEQFjAEegQIBBAB&usg=AOvVaw2faPV4ftK6KrDi07e-DKTT&cf=1&cshid=1548538800519
Ok we covered a small issues of the farming territory, I can go on and on. But there is also another Big influential factor of the lack of food creation, they expropriation (siezed) agroislena the biggest provider of seeds and agricultural equipment and took it to the ground.
http://www.el-nacional.com/noticias/economia/revelan-estado-que-quedo-agroislena-tras-expropiacion_18759
They provided close to 100% of the markets demand of corn seeds. Imagine what happens if you ruin it. Yes Hunger and famine.
Ok we went over this aspect ,Lets continue to the process production aspect.
ECONOMY AND NATIONAL SITUATION
Well here a LOT A LOTTTTTT of companys that process food were expropriated, so i will mention some that come off the top of my head. But all of them face the same end: A total complete unproductive Company.
Lacteos los Andes: One of the biggest companys that produced food till chavez expropriated it. Production rates fell 58.5%, this was one of my personal favorite food production companys till it fell to the state. https://www.analitica.com/economia/produccion-de-lacteos-los-andes-cayo-585-luego-de-pasar-a-manos-del-estado-en-2008/
Monaco: A company that provided harina de maiz a staple food of our country not as big as polar but is up there, also produced flour. It was expropiado at 2008 now unproductive a reason of why there are problems with bread and other flour articles.
http://www.infoenlace.net/?p=18778
Now you can observe it was the goverments, due to lack of production !lets go over to some other important venezuelan companys destroyed by the goverment just for a quick economic overview.
PDVSA: wow this company is our pride and joy or at least was. It was our great oil industry. Even though they have not managed to destroy this monster of a company they are in process of destroying.
Well lets start to ask ourselves on of the main reasons it is failing, there is no qualified personal! who is gonna work in a company that pays very little? The capable professionals start to leave.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.el-nacional.com/amp/noticias/petroleo/trabajadores-pdvsa-huyen-del-pais-por-salario-insuficiente_240658&ved=2ahUKEwjmzsOfqq_gAhXLpFkKHU8dCUEQFjACegQIBhAB&usg=AOvVaw1mLOJ4GSKWAkenWgI0cVTR&cf=1 http://www.laverdad.com/movil/economia/140037-la-crisis-dejan-sin-trabajadores-a-la-golpeada-pdvsa.html
What does this cause in an oil company? Huge and dangerous consequences like the Amuy explosion 42 dead 156 injured. it was one of the biggest oil refinery plants in the country, it actually was one of the main production refinary in gasoline (thats why we have also incurring issues with gasoline.)
https://transparencia.org.ve/transparencia-venezuela-exige-respuesta-a-afectados-por-explosion-de-amuay/
release of Toxic sulfuric gas to the atmostsphere and general population https://transparencia.org.ve/transparencia-venezuela-exige-respuesta-a-afectados-por-explosion-de-amuay/
Lower Production rates of oil:
http://talcualdigital.com/index.php/2018/11/25/quevedo-el-general-que-llevo-la-produccion-de-pdvsa-a-su-minimo-historico/ http://www.bancaynegocios.com/produccion-petrolera-venezolana-cae-a-17-millones-de-barriles-diarios/ https://www.google.com/amp/www.el-nacional.com/amp/noticias/economia/sanciones-pdvsa-influyeron-caida-produccion-opep-enero_269019
Contamination: This one is actually huge, In lake maracaibo the contamination levels are through the roof, affecting heavily on the huge fish industry, look it up.
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.lapatilla.com/2017/04/28/el-lago-de-maracaibo-convertido-en-el-mas-grande-vertedero-contaminado-del-planeta/amp/ https://www.google.com/amp/www.el-nacional.com/amp/noticias/economia/denunciaron-derrame-petroleo-lago-maracaibo_246243 https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.elcorreodelorinoco.com/denuncian-derrame-de-petroleo-lago-maracaibo/amp/
And the most evident Corruption https://www.caracaschronicles.com/2018/04/18/explosive-lawsuit-exposes-corruption-and-mafia-wars-at-pdvsa/
Hell the ex-president of pdvsa has a fortune Rafael Ramirez adn im not even mentioning Maria gabriela chavez, Daughter of Chavez, common soldier expresident turned into Multibillionare. At least some what fishy?
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.cesarmiguelrondon.com/opinion/el-espacio-de-mis-amigos/los-millonarios-tentaculos-la-familia-ramirez-elizabeth-fuentes/&ved=2ahUKEwjwk86Jt6_gAhWvtlkKHbqEDvk4ChAWMAB6BAgGEAE&usg=AOvVaw3D1VCS2NeoJMjj7ykMXHds
Freezing of drills:
Hell the last time they admitied they had 23.319 drills partially or completly frozen.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.elimpulso.com/2018/06/06/quevedo-pdvsa-recuperara-23-319-pozos-petroleros-para-producir-14-mmbd-adicionales-jun6/&ved=2ahUKEwjQkfrVta_gAhUOpFkKHfzqBKs4ChAWMAN6BAgHEAE&usg=AOvVaw0y8TYU5yP5XSWNB4OPnE34
they pay thier debts by giving away unproductive drills. http://impactocna.com/pdvsa-planea-entregar-pozos-abandonados-hace-mas-de-una-decada-para-pagar-deudas-con-produccion/
SIDOR
The metallurgical company well dead completley Dead. IT WAS the 2nd most important metalurgic Processing plant in LATIN AMERICA.
http://www.descifrado.com/2018/05/29/trabajadores-de-sidor-protestan-contra-la-baja-produccion/
Hell the worker are even protesting due to low pay and lack of conditions and production.
https://contextodiario.com/venezuela/afirman-crisis-en-sidor-tras-la-reduccion-de-produccion/
Did i mention that one time they managed or at least I suspect they killed the union worker leader of SIDOR after the reunion with the goverment fishy right? i mean this is a Narco goverment anything is possible. Maduro started criticizing him before the hit, imagine that so im guessing they had a falling out. And how does a suspected murder become the leader of the union? https://m.aporrea.org/endogeno/n237056.htmlllllll https://www.panorama.com.ve/contenidos/2014/06/03/noticia_0046.html https://diariodecaracas.com/que-sucede/periodista-guayana-revela-prontuario-del-gordo-bayon
On the economic side i can talk About hundreds of companys that the goverment expropriated And currently failing.
Petrolera Ameriven, Banco Confederado, Banco Canarias, Banco de Venezuela, Banco Federal, Banpro, Kellogs, Banorte, Bolívar Banco, Sidetur, Cada, Hipermercado Éxito, Hipermercado Cada, Fama de América, Café Madrid, Vengas, Empresas Diana, Cemex de Venezuela, Cementos Lafarge, Petrozuata, Agroisleña, Owens Illinois, Cantv, Holcim, Clorox, Kimberly – Clark, Sambil La Candelaria, Conferry, Cantv, Electricidad de Caracas, red de hoteles Hilton, teleférico Ávila Mágica al igual que un grupo de centrales azucareras.
Some are repeated I'm just to lazy to erase.
BASIC SERVICES
Water and electricity never gonna take that for granted again. https://www.panorama.com.ve/ciudad/Ausencia-en--aulas-supera-el-50-por-falta-de-agua-en-Maracaibo-20190130-0007.html
(50% desertion of students due to water crisis) http://versionfinal.com.ve/ciudad/usuarios-reclaman-indolencia-de-autoridades-ante-la-crisis-hidrica-en-el-zulia/
https://m.aporrea.org/regionales/a267095.html
Electricity crisis but this is really not something new. http://www.eluniversal.com/venezuela/17932/con-mas-de-140-horas-sin-luz-se-intensifica-crisis-electrica-en-el-zulia
140 continuous hours without light in the zulia state http://www.eluniversal.com/venezuela/31636/vuelve-la-inestabilidad-electrica-al-zzzulia
Gas
Venezuela Has TONNNNSSSS of natural gas yet either through lack of production or distribution SOMETIMES (not always i have to admit) their seems to be problems to obtain it for the general population, protests due lack of gas in rural area is VERY COMMON in Venezuela. Normally driving through the state of Falcon you will encounter 1 or 2 protests of a community lacking gas
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.el-nacional.com/amp/noticias/bloguero/venezuela-sin-gas_260686&ved=2ahUKEwi9nb-Bk7LgAhVOtlkKHXbHBbcQFjAAegQIARAB&usg=AOvVaw0dpYIyZFglPRDYA6scimJn&cf=1 https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://globovision.com/article/reportaje-penurias-que-atraviesa-el-venezolano-por-fallas-en-la-distribucion-de-gas&ved=2ahUKEwi9nb-Bk7LgAhVOtlkKHXbHBbcQFjABegQIBxAB&usg=AOvVaw009PRz1do1KKZ-4J09gn9V
Education
like any communist state you start supervising and controling the education of your population, start making them ignorant and brain washed. And with the hunger thats going on, it is going to affect various generations of venezuelans!
Like any communist state you have to brainwash them young! https://es.panampost.com/sabrina-martin/2016/12/15/regimen-ideologiza-educacion-vzla/ https://es.panampost.com/sabrina-martin/2015/03/18/padres-venezolanos-denuncian-tarea-antiimperialista-en-escuelas/
Antiimperialist homework just for kids! https://es.panampost.com/sabrina-martin/2015/03/18/padres-venezolanos-denuncian-tarea-antiimperialista-en-escuelas/
That is of course if you find any teachers willing to teach, because trust me they win NOTHING and work in horrible conditions! https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.noticiasbarquisimeto.com/2018/02/15/en-venezuela-45-de-los-docentes-han-abandonado-las-aulas-en-el-pais/amp/ http://globovision.com/article/la-hora-clave-la-desercion-de-estudiantes-y-docentes-en-venezuela
University's dont escape socialism either! https://www.voanoticias.com/a/venezuela-educacion-estudiantes-profesores-docentes-educandos-abandono-estudios/4368198.html
ILEGAL ACTIVITYS AND TERRORIST AFFILIATIONS
Drug trafficking
hell drug trafficking is a huge problem and not only that the nephews of president maduro are in jail for it ! http://www.venezuelaaldia.com/2018/07/16/cayeron-ante-la-justicia-los-narcosobrinos-evidencia/ https://cnnespanol.cnn.com/video/cnnee-pkg-yilber-vega-sentencia-sobrinos-maduro/
Even the top military brass sell drugs and other illegal material https://es.insightcrime.org/investigaciones/narcotrafico-en-el-regimen-venezolano-el-cartel-de-los-soles/ https://es-us.finanzas.yahoo.com/noticias/trafico-de-drogas-combustible-y-oro-por-que-el-ejercito-de-venezuela-mantiene-maduro-en-el-poder-200334478.html
interested in this? look up the cartel de los soles the biggest drug traffincing empire the world might have seen, Makes Pablo Escobar look like an amatuer!!!
FARC and ELN
One of our biggest problema is the FARC and ELN in our national territory, these terrorist organization (without counting Hezbollah) continuously destabilize our neighbors especially our colombian brothers. They hide thier guns here and run illegal activity! All welcomed and protected by our Narco Goverment
https://es.insightcrime.org/noticias/analisis/reunion-entre-eln-y-disidencias-de-las-farc-confirma-que-utilizan-venezuela-como-enclave-criminal/
https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.europapress.es/internacional/noticia-fiscal-general-colombia-asegura-disidencias-farc-encuentran-venezuela-20190209052840.html
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.eltiempo.com/amp/mundo/venezuela/eln-y-disidencia-de-farc-controlan-minas-de-coltan-y-oro-en-venezuela-291904
They are winning money by controling the mines of Coltan and gold of our country. It seems to have unleashed a series of violence in the amazons All under goverment supervision. https://www.google.com/amp/www.el-nacional.com/amp/noticias/sucesos/operativo-del-ejercito-dejo-muertos-mina-cicapra-bolivar_222784 https://www.google.com/amp/s/es.mongabay.com/2018/02/arco-minero-de-venezuela/amp/ https://notiespartano.com/2018/11/11/ecocidio-contrabando-y-muerte-se-esconde-detras-del-arco-minero-del-orinoco/ https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.nacion.com/el-mundo/conflictos/la-masacre-que-desangra-el-amazonas/FKYDVAO3IRAKDD44EZS76G6BEA/story/%3foutputType=amp-type
Tupamarus
a tupamaru is a Bolivian soldier as you can call it but not exactly. Its an average civilian with a gun armed by the goverment to cause harm and terrorize the population to not protest. They are in charge of attacking and harming opposition protestets I have FACED THEM PERSONALLY I HAVE HAD TO RUN IN MARCHES TO NOT GET SHOT.
https://www.infobae.com/america/venezuela/2017/04/29/los-5-colectivos-chavistas-mas-temidos-por-la-poblacion-civil-de-venezuela/ https://www.google.com/search?q=5+colectivos+chavistas+temidos&oq=5+colectivos+chavistas+temidos&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.5143j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
Goverment lies
Wow these guys will blame anything on the US and pay HUGE amounts of money to blame them, some might be even true who knows at this rate!
but the nature of the narco-dictatorship knows no bounds and they are willing to blame the US every evil in the world how can I forget the famous HARRP reference that I will never forget a weather control program that attacks venezuela yes you heard it!
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.cnet.com/es/google-amp/noticias/venezuela-sismos-haarp-chavismo-madurismo-provocado-imperio/
remember that our dictator also talked to chavez through a bird kinda reminds me of north Korea dont know why.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://amp.elnuevoherald.com/noticias/mundo/america-latina/venezuela-es/article2022239.html&ved=2ahUKEwijoKT50a_gAhUFuVkKHRxnB34QFjAEegQIBBAB&usg=AOvVaw0P4hsnyVGeBBj-c9mogrA3&cf=1 https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.tn.com.ainternacional/maduro-volvio-a-decir-que-le-hablo-un-pajarito-me-dijo-que-chavez-esta-feliz_520743
US sanctions affect Venezuelan Economy
wow how has maduro tried to say that they have affected the economy, since i dont know when. Total and utter lie US sanctions are JUST NOW affecting the economy, all previous US sanctions were affecting the regimens high level officers and goverment officials bank accounts! as you can see the economy collapsed DUE TO MISMANAGEMENT and CORRUPTION.
The US has nothing but affected just now. Plus with at least the other industries i mentioned you have a larger grasp of mismanagement that caused the economic collapse.
I want to highlight a very interesting stat, the venezuelan economy shrunk 50% in the last 5 years, what US sanctions caused that? https://www.dailywire.com/news/43183/watch-british-journalist-destroys-argument-us-ashe-schow https://www.google.com/amp/s/theconversation.com/amp/venezuela-us-sanctions-hurt-but-the-economic-crisis-is-home-grown-111280 https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm583
Justice System
Total and utterly broken. you killed someone? You know the right guy and you are free bro! . Want a divorce and wanna screw your wife over? just pay enough money to the judge. https://www.google.com/amp/www.el-nacional.com/amp/noticias/politica/venezuela-hay-leyes-sistema-judicial-paralelo_244550
Tarek william Saab is in charge of the DA but is totally bought, he has exclusives high contracts with pdvsa http://www.mundo-oriental.com.ve/det.aspx?id=87267
He is both in charge of assigning your defandent in cse you face trail and both the DA cant imagine you ill get a good fair trail.
Maikel moreno president of the Supreme court ex-criminal, WHY AM I NOT SUPRISED!?.
1987 arrested due to the ties of a murder in cuidad bolivar. He was personally involved in the arrest of Simonovis a Asamblea Nacional Member (member of Congress for Americans) who was highly critical of the Goverment. He is currently held is the much feared Helicode prison
https://amp.elnuevoherald.com/noticias/mundo/america-latina/venezuela-es/article64656027.html
You were protesting Peacefully and no civilian court wants to process you? well the goverment will prosecute and sentence you in a military court by the way this is ILEGAL in ANY country.
http://elucabista.com/2017/06/08/juzgar-a-civiles-en-tribunales-militares/
Helicoide
A mall turned into a prison, A torture center for the dissidents of the goverment and opposition. We all fear going there. Here all manners of phiscological and physical torture are going on for people of the opposition, this deserves its own documentary. No Goverment that is considered DEMOCRATIC should hve a TORTURE CENTER.
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.bbc.com/mundo/amp/noticias-america-latina-47005882
Crime rates
Venezuela is not currently in an active war, yet reports of violent deaths are staggering. Various criminal organizations are active around the country.
yet due to massive migration, Even Venezuelan criminals are migrating and the criminal levels have dropped. You can even learn about el tren de Aragua (very famous) el picure confrontation. And members El Catire are even spreading crimes to neighboring peru. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.diariolasamericas.com/america-latina/lider-del-grupo-criminal-el-tren-aragua-detenido-peru-pide-ser-extraditado-venezuela-n4
Murder rates
Its hard to actually have a precise figure due to the fact that the goverment always tries to hide real figures and does not keep a register (because its not slighty convinient for them) 2017 has been reduced from 26.000 deaths , to 23.000 deaths in 2018.
But a lot a factors have changed the increasing tendencies of violence, One factor being the Venezuelan Exodus, the huge number of venezuelans leaving thier contry contributes to the lower number of victims in 2018.
https://www.google.com/amp/s/mobile.reuters.com/article/amp/idUSKCN1OQ1GJ
Prison System
The prison system does not help at all. Murder is rampant inside the system and corruption is absolute. At times the criminals pay to be released for a while and then return the following day. I mean if you have a narco state all is possible.
There have been literal battles of the army vs the prisoners. These prisoners are able to GET HIGH CALIBER rifles And HAND GRENADES inside prison and on the seets. This is easy information to gain access to, search up Carcel Sabaneta, and Tocoron. There have been occasions where THE ARMY has had to go and kill the due to the fact that the police does not have the fire power to calm the riots.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masacre_de_Sabaneta_de_2013
http://elestimulo.com/climax/los-malandros-las-prefieren-de-alto-calibre/
Hell they even have Clubs inside, a restaurant and manage to bring in prostitutes all under the government eyes.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.reportero24.com/2012/06/05/carceles-en-la-pgv-hay-cibercafe-bar-discoteca-y-pista-de-motocross/&ved=2ahUKEwjIhK6Z_LHgAhUw11kKHaPIAFgQFjAMegQIAhAB&usg=AOvVaw3x2OYkVaoadvmGaMhLImnJ https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://bc.marfeel.com/maduradas.com/lujo-de-pranes-carcel-de-tocoron-no-solo-tiene-discoteca-sino-banco-piscinas-y-restaurante/%3Fmarfeeltn%3Damp&ved=2ahUKEwjIhK6Z_LHgAhUw11kKHaPIAFgQFjANegQIBRAB&usg=AOvVaw1gygNnHk093hu519xCGGZ6&cf=1 https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://informe21.com/actualidad/insolito-carcel-sabaneta-hay-piscina-gimnasio-discoteca&ved=2ahUKEwjIhK6Z_LHgAhUw11kKHaPIAFgQFjAOegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw3xIvJp_Wl4IqAfuox6sewu
Venezuelan Exodus
This is something NO ONE can deny. By logic a person who has all his minimum requirements met. Who feels he lives in a functioning society, with a chance of a positive future should want to live in his country.
Then if all the media is inventing lies about the truth of venezuela! THEN WHY? are US venezuelans leaving by the thousands?!
An estimates 3 Million Venezuelans have left Hell my family is split. On my father side we are 9 cousins. I AM THE LAST ONE WHO STILL LIVES HERE. on my mothers side WE ARE THE LAST FAMILY LIVING IN VENEZUELA. https://socialistworker.org/2018/12/04/a-venezuelan-exodus https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/08/venezuela-migrants-fleeing-exodus-increase-united-nations
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.nbcnews.com/news/amp/ncna934006
40% of the professional work force of Venezuela IS gone if not more, How are we supposed to build a society When the professional work force of Venzuela is fleeing?
THIS WILL ONLY CONTINUE WITH MADURO IN POWER. Sorry maybe i had to vent but trust me My Venezuela is not in the best of positions right now And i am missing a lot of things just investigate a little and careful what you read.
EDIT 1: Correction of gramatical errors will soon, Update this post With Examples of past dissidents and their deaths, and the Real Nature of US-Venezuela Oil relationship in the past years.
EDIT 2: updated and showed the surveys from respective companys that display the public opinion of unpopularity of nicolas maduro, Lack of trust in CNE, and Contradictions from Elections and Results
EDIT 3: Organized by topic and will continue to expand heavily (i dont live off this yet passionate and no im no political worker so i have to do this in my spare time.)
submitted by LordDeathScum to venezuelancivilwar [link] [comments]


2019.01.25 21:13 UnavailableUsername_ Venezuela problems were caused by socialism and it is an example socialism doesn't work.

 

Chavez and Maduro's "Socialist Revolution" was responsible of the collapse of the Venezuela

Chavez once promised "socialism or death", claiming that Venezuela needed to become socialist to become a prosper nation and that capitalism would only lead to collapse.
One has to wonder if he mixed both terms when making this claim. And that is because as of now, what once was a rich and wonderful country is now one of the poorest and most dangerous ones of the region at the border of collapse. Venezuela has reached the shocking number of 1,300,000% of annual inflation (not overall inflation) in November 2018 and the number keeps growing more and more.
But there is no doubt Chavez meant those words, he went as far as to proudly proclaim himself to be a Socialist, Bolivarian, Marxist and to start a "Bolivarian socialism revolution of the XXI Century" in Venezuela.
And Venezuela is a socialist country, a socialist country model controlled and regulated by the government.
But why so much inflation? Experts agree it is because goods shortage.
But why does this happen?
 

Socialism in action: Expropriation and seizing of private property:

One of the core aspects of socialism is the restriction of private property. The state controls and owns the production supposedly to provide a better life for the citizens since "the state knows better".
Chavez dutifully followed this dogma, expropriating private property without any concern:
To those that STILL doubt that wasn't socialism, these 2 events are proof that it was:
Taking stuff from "the bourgeois" to give to the people, it doesn't get more socialist than that. Chavez was a big fan of take over what wasn't his and tell "fuck you" to the real owners.
This should be enough evidence it was socialism in action.
 

Socialization of the Venezuela's alimentary industries led to their failure:

Many claim it was only the oil to blame for Venezuela's problems.
This is a lie.
Chavez and Maduro's "Bolivarian socialist revolution of the XXI century" made an effort to destroy Venezuela's once prosperous industry.
The expropriation of businesses of the food industry lead to the alimentary crisis in venezuela, this is a well-known fact for experts and everyone that follows Venezuela situation.
The expropriation had an explicit socialist goal, as it was proudly announced things like bakery companies being seized and given "to the people".
It is often said "Venezuela is not socialism because 70% of the industry is private!!" by pro-Chavez/pro-Maduro people, but the information comes from the central bank of Venezuela. They claim the state ownership is the same as before Chavez took power in 1998...anyone can realizes that's a BIG lie after reading this post.
In reality Chavez expropiated over 1200 companies in just 10 years, and that without count Maduro's expropriations. so the "70% is owned by the private sector" number of 1998 when Chavez started his government does not apply anymore on 2019.
The crisis in the vegetable industry caused by socialism:
Chavez expropriated "Agroisleña" in 2010, an agricultural supplier of seeds, manure, fertilizers and etc then proceeded to rename it to "Agropatria" to put emphasis it was socialized and popular property.
The new "popular-owned" Agropatria socialism management catastrophically failed, which lead to an increase in 700% in the price of products like rice.
Experts claim the socialization of the a key agricultural business is what started the food crisis in Venezuela, still, that didn't stopped Maduro from keep doing the exact same thing by expropriating fertilizer company. .
The crisis in the meat and dairy industry caused by the socialist revolution:
Among many, MANY cattle and dairy businesses, Chavez called to expropriate the "Compañia Inglesa" land, a British-owned cattle ranch of over 290,000 hectares for the people. In fact, over 3,600,000 hectares of cattle-farming land have been seized as of 2011, the number is probably much much bigger as of 2018.
The result of the socialist management of these cattle ranch and expropriation of cattle caused a massive crisis in the production of these meat and dairty goods, which lead to an increment of 700%~900% in the price of milk and meat
The crisis in the fish, seafood and sea industry caused by the socialist revolution:
Following the trend of the agro-industry, Chavez ordered the army the expropriation of ports and fishing fleet to socialize them, also giving the order of "send to Jail whoever disagrees!" and once again, the socialization lead to the collapse of fishing fleets and the paralyzation of the production.
 

Socialism implementation destroyed the industry:

Not only the core alimentary sectors were affected, the overall industry in Venezuela suffered because of the socialist revolution.
Chavez, unable to reach a deal to buy Cemex, a mexican productor of cement, simply expropriates it, the socialization lead to the industry to reach red numbers, producing 41% LESS than what they did before they were expropriated. This has lead to the raise in the price of cement in the country.
Chavez also ordered the nationalization of metallurgic industry. and even more importantly, the expropiation of the "Sidor" metallurgy in Venezuela one of the key industries of the country. Once again, the socialized management lead to the crisis of the steel industry to the point that what once was a vibrant steel factory is now a ghost town. It is not surprise the production of steel in venezuela is in crisis.
Plenty of foreign companies had to leave venezuela because of the socialist bolivarian revolution makes impossible for them to keep producing goods:
Be because they simply cannot keep producing goods, they don't have the necessary ingredients or simply the government keeps meddling with controls, multiple foreign business simply had to leave Venezuela.
 

The oil industry:

Chavez regime took over the oil industry and it lead to it's collapse.
What was the result of all that expropriation?
Why? Because Chavez knew literally nothing of the business and mismanaged it.
Expropriations leads the PDSVA to the border of bankrupt.
The collapse of the PDSVA (Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company) after the Bolivarian socialist revolution.
The situation is so ridiculous but the socialist revolution is stubborn, Maduro claimed he wanted an even more socialist PDSVA and ordered more production. and in the following months the military took control of the estate PDSVA
 

The price-control of the socialist revolution make the problem even worse:

The state controls the distribution of goods with socialism, and Chavez/Maduro regime is no exception. Their regime is known to impose price controls to the goods the people desperately want, which leads to more shortages.
Venezuelan Price Controls which Lead to Predictable Shortages. According to a recent survey, 60% of Venezuelans shed at least 11 kilograms in weight during the last year due to malnutrition because of the shortages and overall lack of availability of food.
 
 
It took me quite a while to make this post, but in conclusion:
Claim Venezuela's problems are not because of Maduro and Chavez "Socialism Bolivarian Revolution" is being willfully ignorant at best, and completely evil if still believe so after reading this.
Chavez and Maduro meticulously focused in fuck pretty much all of Venezuela's once prosperous industries by taking the private property away, threatening people on live TV and even ordering to jail whoever opposed, all for their "Socialism Bolivarian Revolution" , which lead to the current situation.
submitted by UnavailableUsername_ to rant [link] [comments]


2018.12.18 13:20 Auloxcs Maybe a better idea than none competitive

[English]
As many Know #HGC was Cancel for next year and it will not return for 2019 and of course this is gonna have repecursion on the game as the massive migrations of players have already begun to where they can find a competitive scene. Being Competitive was a important part of the game knowing that with effort, discipline and time you could get to a final in an event like Blizzcon playing your favorites characters from all Blizzard Franchises was a dream come true. a dream with many technical flaws like Matchmaking, mmr, the reconnection system and for some the high demand of a good computer to be able to stream or run the game on his max quality but with all those people loved the game and played with no problem.

Competitive was such an important part that i don't know if there is any other moba as big as heroes of the storm with no competitive scene from the company itself or at least with some support of the company because in reality if we are cold and look at Heroes number it was not doing that bad. you are competing in a genre that is overpopulated by moba games and trying to match the most played game this year and for the last 8 probably that is League of Legends, being in the third place for viewership was not bad indeed, not the best game but still not bad and it was growing in viewership this year at least on minor regions.

the problem for me was the model of putting the money in the game (is very similar to how league was running theirs league) and the problem with this model is that is not sustain itself, it does not even sustain itself for a game Like League of Legends that is the top game being played right now and they had a budget reduction for their league system in latam at least trying to make it more local.

But what other model has a world cup and does sustain itself, well just look at the most played sport futboll. if the Fifa as an organization tried to assume the cost of every competitive part of the game (playing players, clubs, coaches everything) it will go to bankrupt in days, so they assume theirs cost by putting sponsorship in almost everything that why is so important to have a way to sell your product to the brand and make it appealing to invest in it a part the Heroes of the Storm failed hardly not because of the game because of Blizzard strategy on where and how they put theirs money in,

We know the model was unsustainable and we already know one that it is so why not get some ideas from there even the fifa game is doing great because of it, is extremely appealing for brand to invest publicity in it, is impossible for any company to accept the cost of all theirs competitive leagues by themself. Heroes of the Storm was not on the best position on games being played but was not bad also considering the bad job that Blizzard had promoting the game (sometimes the league were not even being shared on the BlizzHeroes fanpage, why is that i really don´t know) and i think the event that has more impact was when they payed others mobas players to stream league for a week or so.

if you have a cold look at Heroes of the Storm as a product it easy to see is a great product that indeed in need some fix but are minots comparing to the innovation that the games bring to the genre and how appealing it is to play it when you are hook to it, i do think the HGC cost was not sustainable by the game itself but the model was created to fail. With Half of the inversion done putting money on tournaments creators, leagues and gaming teams it could easily created a real world cup separated by countries, it could easily create alot more competitive teams (we had this model for latam hgc first year over 200 teams joined) and it could be way more appealing to brand to teams and to everything to invest in hots(Community does a lot of work for you Blizzard never forget that is mostly what give you live as a company and give you your fanbase), showing publicity could had been done by selling skins packs to companies creating a Pepsi LiLi for example a Red bull sticthes that for the audiciencie is easier to see that publicity that the one show on commercials and on constant stream logos and im pretty sure is more appealing to companies.

i don't think any players could had a problem by branding theirs shirts with brand as long as you give them some spotlight for the brand to they can invest in it (yeah do that with the launcher showing streamers, content,etc)

Killing hgc was a good idea in a way of financial cut but not announcing anything to competitive was a worst one, a way better one a budget reduction with focus on putting your money in a different way but 0 is a bad move, Heroe of the Storm is a great product and i'm pretty sure it could had been handily waaay better in terms of publicity how you sell it to brand to invest and how you show your players and community. Killing affect players, casters, coaches, streamers but it affects above all your community because competitive may have make us fight in game but in real life make us friends, share values with others and make us share that same fire that burns inside of us all.

Heroes of the Storm is a good game, take advantage of your product, use it wisely because it has a community that loves it and it still do with all those flaws we still do.

- Aulox, Caster for Latam.


#savehots
[Spanish]
Bueno como muchos saben #HGC no tendrá su retorno el 2019 y esto no puedo mentir va a traer repercusiones al juego ya que el competitivo era una gran parte de el, el saber que tenias una posibilidad de que si le ponías mucho esfuerzo, constancia, disciplina ibas a poder llegar a un evento como Blizzcon o una final del mundo en un moba usando los personajes que amas era un sueño hecho realidad, un sueño que en algunos aspectos técnicos tenia falencias como el sistema de reconexión o el MatchMaking o para algunos el hecho de que su motor gráfico requería un computador de gama alta para ser bien aprovechado, falencias que incluso con ellas amamos el juego.

Tener el aspecto competitivo era una gran parte de ello, tan grande que no se si existe otro Moba del tamaño que tenia Heroes of the Storm sin escena competitiva porque seamos realistas en termino de números Heroes estaba tercero/cuarto en lo que respecta a Mobas lo cual no es excelente ya que compites contra League of Legends que es el juego mas jugado (salio en todos lados este año), pero tampoco es terrible estas con buenos numeros en un genero que ya venia siendo explotado bastante y en crecimiento de hecho este año, al menos hasta HGC, el gran problema es que la forma creo en lo personal estaba que el modelo de como funcionan algunas ligas competitivas no es sustentable a como se invierte el Dinero y posiblemente por eso es cortado por la empresa, es una gran cantidad de dinero la que se invierte y no es retribuido de la misma forma pero creo que eso también le ocurrió a League of Legends este año y sigue siendo el juego mas jugado esto nos habla un poco que el modelo de liga por Regiones Mayores donde las compañías asumen los costos de mantener a los equipos no es sustentable porque incluso ellos tuvieron un re ajuste de costos.

Pero espera que otro modelo tiene un mundial y tiene ligas puesto bueno bastantes deportes y vamos a al futbol por ejemplo, si a la Fifa se le ocurriera asumir todos esos costos se iría a quiebra en unas semanas si no días probablemente ¿entonces como los asumen? Puesto bueno tienen clubes que tienen marcas por todos lados, sus torneos tienen marcas por todos lados porque las marcas invierten en la forma de propaganda entregada y las genera ganancias esa inversion, incluso el juego Fifa tiene gran inversion de dinero por parte de marcas y de la forma que entrega publicidad dentro del juego ademas.

Ya sabemos que el modelo no era sustentable ya que para mi no radica en la cantidad de dinero que se invierte si no en como se invierte por parte de la empresa que no se puede hacer cargo de casi todos los gastos de su escena competitiva mas que probado y no existe otro moba sin escena competitiva lo cual me lleva a pensar que no es buena idea un moba sin una escena competitiva en especial a uno que le iba bien como a Heroes of the Storm, no era el juego mas Jugado pero si estaba en buena posición y creo que tenia una gran cantidad de comunidad incluso con sus falencias como la búsqueda de ligas que unirlas honestamente acelerando las colas que era lo único que me molestaba de verdad no era una mala idea.

Heroes of the Storm si lo miras fríamente sigue siendo un buen producto a aprovechar y creo que incluso haber copiado un modelo mas sustentable te hubiera permitido invertir mucho menos dinero como empresa pero generar un mayor impacto, imagina destinas el 40% de hgc a hacer relaciones con marcas, hacer clasificatorios por paises para generar muchos mas equipos, así mas competitividad, de paso buscas que Casa Ciberdeportivas potencien a tus jugadores(¿se acuerdan la temporada 1 cuantos se metieron a Copa Ameirca?) y financiarlo vendiendo tu producto y no no me refiero a poner publicidad en las transmisiones me refiero a dentro del Juego, monturas, diseños, banners de todo, poleras de los equipos y instituciones que te ayuden a crear torneos y hacer los clasificatorios (no se si te das cuenta Blizzard pero a tu comunidad le encanta hacer cosas creo que este lazo se podría aprovechar mucho mejor) , si los costos no te dan no metas tanto dinero en competitivo pero cortar de raíz la inversion creo que es una pésima jugada ya que le quita como dijimos al comienzo el sueño a una gran cantidad de personas jugadores,casters, creadores de la comunidad,etc.

Yo creo que casi ningún jugador hubiera tenido problema de llevar poleras con marcas que muestren su publicidad, jugar con un skins de Gul’ Dan in Game de Redbull o una LiLi CocaCola no tendría problema mientras creara la escena que podría crear, el competitivo es una gran parte del cualquier juego es algo que nos mueve y nos une incluso con otras personas, puede que nos vuelva rivales dentro del juego pero nos vuelve amigos en la vida real. Activision-Blizzard aprovecha bien tu producto usa bien tu juego que tiene una comunidad que lo quiere y ama.

-Aulox.
#savehots #porelnexo


submitted by Auloxcs to heroesofthestorm [link] [comments]


2018.11.20 02:16 alforo_ La asunción a los cielos de su majestad la reina doña Letizia

El Palacio de la Zarzuela es un recinto que ordenó construir en 1627 el rey Felipe IV a modo de pabellón de caza en el marco incomparable y bucólico del monte del Pardo. Esta es la residencia oficial de los reyes eméritos don Juan Carlos y doña Sofía (que por culpa de las desavenencias del monarca ya no comparten el lecho matrimonial) y su hermana Irene -las infantas lo han abandonado al casarse con prestigiosos varones ejemplo de honorabilidad y honradez - Por lo tanto el reino de España tiene cuatro soberanos que cobran sus respectivos emolumentos, viáticos y gastos de representación a cuenta de los presupuestos generales del estado. Vaya suerte que tienen sus súbditos. La monarquía es la mejor inversión que incluso comprándola con el sistema republicano sale hasta barata.
Mientras, la familia real reside en el Pabellón del Príncipe que es un palacio al estilo renacentista de 3.000 metros cuadrados (1.771 metros cuadrados útiles) construido por el Patrimonio Nacional con un costo de 4.300.000 euros. Un verdadero castillo medieval con foso y murallas vigilado celosamente por la Guardia Real. En la fachada ondea altiva la bandera rojigualda como símbolo imperecedero de la unidad de España.
En el año 2002 el presidente de gobierno José María Aznar se la ofreció a modo de regalo al entonces Príncipe de Asturias don Felipe de Borbón (con vistas a su futuro noviazgo) El pabellón del Príncipe se encuentra en una zona aledaña a la Zarzuela rodeado de jardines de ensueño y 14.000 hectáreas de un hermoso bosque Mediterráneo donde retozan, ciervos, gamos y jabalíes. En apariencia de propiedad pública pero “afecto” al servicio y uso de su majestad el rey y de los miembros de la familia real”.
El rey recibe una cantidad global de casi 8.000.000 millones de euros de los presupuestos generales del estado destinada el sostenimiento de la familia real y que él distribuye a su libre albedrío. No olvidemos que la monarquía es inviolable y está blindada por los partidos mayoritarios PP. PSOE y Ciudadanos. Patrimonio Nacional o la Guardia Real cuentan con un presupuesto de 150 millones de euros anuales y casi 3.000 trabajadores - Teóricamente dependientes del gobierno central, pero en la práctica al servicio de la Casa Real.
En el Pabellón del Príncipe igualmente se hallan las oficinas de la Casa del Rey, el Cuarto Militar -dirigido por el almirante Juan Ruiz Casas- el jefe de protocolo y una sección donde se alojan los siervos, pajes, criadas, doncellas, camareros, amas, mucamas, mayordomos, institutrices, preceptores, ayos y palafreneros. Aparte de los miembros de los cuerpos de seguridad del estado, escoltas y edecanes. Como a doña Letizia el estamento castrense le produce cierta repulsa ha prohibido el toque de corneta, la izada y arriada de bandera y el homenaje a los caídos. Pero esto no es óbice para que la capitana general de los ejércitos luciendo sus mejores galas con peineta y mantilla amadrine los navíos de guerra, carros de combate, aviones bombarderos o participe en la jura de bandera de los agentes de la Guardia Civil.
Quizás el recinto más importante del palacio de la Zarzuela sea la cocina real donde los fogones permanecen encendidos las veinticuatro horas del día. Y esto se debe a que en cualquier momento sus altezas reales exigen los más extravagantes caprichitos gastronómicos. El responsable del mismo es José Roca, cocinero mayor del reino, y experto en complacer los paladares más exquisitos. (tanto de la familia real como los invitados VIP)
Los proveedores oficiales de la Zarzuela se esmeran en aportar los productos de primerísima calidad, biológicos y con denominación de origen certificado: el mejor pollo de corral, la selecta carne vacuno o de porcino, sobre todo, el solomillo del grupo Norteños, sin pasar por alto el cordero o cochinillo de Segovia, la pechuguita de pavo, el jamoncito serrano o de jabugo, y el pescado como es habitual de Pescaderías Coruñesas, el caviar, las angulas, los centollos, los percebes, las langostas, las parrochas, el salmón del Sella, sin olvidar las verduras y hortalizas frescas y una extensa variedad de postres: frutas tropicales, la tarta de Santiago, los casadielles, las yemas de Ávila, la crema catalana, el pastel cordobés, las ensaimadas de baleares o el arroz con leche. Entre tanto en la bodega reposan vinos incunables tanto de España como del mundo entero lo mismo que una extensa variedad de brandys, vodkas, cavas y champagne.
No sabemos lo que pensarán los obreros o los trabajadores que se levantan a las 6 de la mañana a cumplir con su dura jornada diaria ¿Tal vez se le dibujará en su rostro una sonrisa al saber que parte de sus impuestos se dedican a mantener la familia Real y a su extensa prole? Eso sin hablar del tiempo de ocio que ocupan principalmente en saraos, los fiestonones, banquetes, duelos gastronómicos, cacerías, monterías, corridas de toros, regatas o cruceros de placer.
A través de una pantalla de televisión y gracias a la magia de las ondas hertzianas la presentadora del telediario de la segunda cadena Letizia Ortiz logró cautivar al príncipe Felipe (un coloso de 1.90 de estatura dotado de una inteligencia superior) que cayó presa de un súbito encantamiento virtual. Un cuento de hadas solo comparable al romance de Romeo y Julieta.
El soberano o soberana (porque ya se ha abolido la ley Sálica) de las Españas se elige “democráticamente” en el lecho nupcial. Esto significa que si alguno de los espermatozoides del soberano fecunda con éxito el santísimo óvulo de su majestad a los nueve meses alumbrará un ser pluscuamperfecto que guie los destinos del reino.
Las actuales hijas de la pareja real son dos hermosas infantas rubias y de ojos azules, étnicamente arias, católicas y apostólicas ya que están emparentadas por un lado con los emperadores Bávaros y por el otro con don Pelayo. En este caso la corona ha recaído en la infanta Leonor, princesa de Asturias, quien, por obra y gracia del espíritu santo, será la nueva reina de España asegurando así la perpetuidad de la dinastía borbónica.
La rutina diaria de sus majestades está marcada por una apretada agenda institucional propia de tan alta investidura. El jefe de la Casa Real es el encargado de planificar cada una de las actividades oficiales y extraoficiales de Felipe VI -el Jefe de Estado y capitán general de los ejércitos- y de su consorte la reina doña Letizia.
El cirujano Antonio de la Fuente y los médicos del clínica Ruber han atendido a la reina Doña Letizia (por motivos de salud, se afirma) en los últimos 14 años. Al parecer su majestad está obsesionada con su aspecto físico (la perfección hedonista) ¿cuánto han costado estas carísimas operaciones y tratamientos? Cualquier esfuerzo es poco para elevar su autoestima y garantizar su felicidad. ¿Alguien se atreve a cuestionarla? Quien lo haga inmediatamente será acusado de antiespañol, separatista o comunista y condenado a la picota. Su alteza serenísima doña Letizia está a punto de terminar el proceso de metamorfosis y pronto los súbditos podrán presumir de tener la reina más bella del universo.
Gracias a las incontables operaciones de cirugía estética (que son un secreto de estado) la reina ha conseguido superar el canon de belleza griega. De veras que luce como una adolescente a pesar de haber cumplido 46 años. En su currículo extraoficial consta una septorrinoplastia para corregir el tabique nasal, la elevación de los parpados con silicio orgánico y tocoferol, una mentoplastia para suavizar el mentón tan prominente, el aumento de pechos con implante de silicona con el fin de realzar el busto, la eliminación de las bolsas de los ojos, el arreglo de los dientes con brackets (ortodoncia) La reina por ley y cueste lo que cueste debe ser eternamente joven y subir incorrupta al reino de los cielos. Por prescripción médica también se le han recomendado tratamientos corporales y faciales: infiltraciones de ácido hialurónico sintético para rellenar los surcos de las arrugas, las inyecciones de hidroxiapatita de calcio para realzar los pómulos, la toxina botuniloica para relajar la expresión de la frente, el botox para estirar la piel o colágeno para rejuvenecerla. Los halagos y piropos se multiplican y llueven a su paso los pétalos de rosas. Esas joyas que exhibe en los desfiles de modas le otorga un cierto halo de divinidad: la tiara de lis, el emblema de los Borbones, y regalo de Alfonso XIII a su prometida la princesa Victoria Eugenia de Battenberg, la tiara de diamantes que le ofreció Franco a la reina Sofía con motivo de su enlace matrimonial, dos pulseras de la firma Cartier, los collares de perlas finas de Tiffany Victoria, la diadema prusiana de platino, diamante y brillantes, los pendientes aguamarina y zafiros, los anillos de oro engastados con esmeraldas.
Pertenecemos a una sociedad en la que prima la imagen y el culto al cuerpo. Por lo tanto la reina Letizia está constantemente expuesta al juicio mediático que se emite a través de la prensa, la radio, la televisión o las redes sociales (tanto a nivel nacional como internacional) Esta sobreexposición bestial la soberana la afronta con coraje y valentía. Suena la marcha real y nadie puede hacerle sombra pues su majestad es el centro del universo. Tales delirios de grandeza los disimula con una sonrisa de cumplido o un gesto mayestático que define su recio carácter. Cada movimiento suyo está impregnado de glamour, y un irresistible atractivo erótico y hasta sexual que provoca un desmedido apasionamiento. Doña Letizia es la estrella de las revistas del corazón y la prensa rosa de los cinco continentes, ella es la best seller, la número uno que agota todas las ediciones, y acapara todas las portadas. ¡Letizia, Letizia! la plebeya nieta de un taxista ha sido coronada en lo más alto del Olimpo.
¿Cuál es el papel de la reina? ¿Acaso todos piensan que es meramente representativo? ¿un jarrón chino? Doña Letizia tiene que cuidar la imagen pública puesto que es el mascarón de proa de la marca España. Su belleza y sensualidad es el mejor gancho y propaganda para asegurar el éxito en los contratos, inversiones, transacciones y exportaciones que son un factor determinante para el buen funcionamiento del PIB (producto interior bruto) o la estabilidad de la prima de riesgo. Es una excelente relaciones públicas y las multinacionales españolas están de plácemes. La reina también toma decisiones ya que prudentemente le susurra al oído de su majestad Felipe VI sus preferencias en los asuntos familiares o políticos. Sus deseos se convierten en órdenes pues al fin y al cabo los acontecimientos más cruciales del reino se deciden en la cama o en los mejores restaurantes.
Nadie ha podido desvelar el patrimonio de la familia real española pero se especula que podría elevarse a unos 150.000.000 millones de euros. No hay que ser mal pensados porque todo este dinero es producto de sus abnegados servicios a la patria. La dinastía borbónica a través de la historia se ha distinguido por su proverbial honradez, jamás han ejercido de lobistas, ni han cobrado comisiones, ni se le conocen corruptelas o cuentas en paraísos fiscales como pretenden insinuar sus más encarnizados enemigos.
Algunos envidiosos sostienen que es una afrenta intolerable tamaña exhibición de opulencia y derroche por parte de la familia real. Más bien lo que deberían hacer es predicar la austeridad pues en el reino de España existen millones de marginados y empobrecidos víctimas de la crisis económica.
Los defensores de la monarquía responden que este es un estúpido argumento populista con el que intentan los antisistema destruir una de las instituciones más queridas por los súbditos españoles. La monarquía representa la unidad de España y es la garante del estado de derecho, la libertad y la democracia. Así lo decidieron los súbditos cuando en el referéndum constitucional de 1978 aprobaron con el 87% de los votos la restauración borbónica. Refrendando así la voluntad testamentaria del caudillo Francisco Franco que eligió al príncipe don Juan Carlos como su sucesor.
No quiero ni pensar si llegará a fallecer nuestra sacrosanta y serenísima reina –Dios la guarde por muchos años- seguro que al día siguiente no saldría el sol y sus criadas, amas y siervas serían enterradas vivas junto a ella en una magnánima ceremonia faraónica. El rey inconsolable perdería la razón y muchos de sus súbditos preferirían el suicidio antes que soportar la ausencia de tan augusta benefactora. El doblar de las campanas, el luto oficial indefinido, las banderas a media asta, y el desgarrador llanto de las plañideras sumirían al reino en la depresión más espantosa.
Su majestad se pasa las horas muertas en el tocador de la alcoba ensimismada frente a su espejo pronunciando el clásico conjuro: “espejito mágico espejito de oro ¿quién es la más linda? Dímelo tesoro” El genio le responde con voz impostada: “nadie en el reino es capaz de eclipsar a vuestra excelencia ¡doña Letizia es las más guapa, guapa, guapa!” Coqueta y vanidosa lanza un suspiro de alivio mientras los poetas palaciegos le cantan versos laudatorios: ¡¡Oh, gloria inmarcesible!! ¡¡oh, júbilo inmortal!! Escribirán su nombre en letras de oro en los anales de la historia, se le levantarán estatuas, bustos, se erigirán monumentos en su honor; eternamente adulada por sus súbditos que le hacen reverencias, besan sus purísimas manos y se rinden a sus pies. La revista Hola, el boletín oficial de la Casa Real, el Diez Minutos, Lecturas o Semana lanzan ediciones extraordinarias para ponderar el regreso de Sissi emperatriz resucitada.
El culto a la personalidad es una de las máximas virtudes de nuestra monarquía “constitucional” y ya comienzan a bautizarse con su nombre estadios, aeropuertos, salas de teatro, hospitales, y hasta tanatorios. Por real decreto ley la foto oficial de sus majestades debe presidir los ayuntamientos, colegios, universidades, cuarteles, estaciones de policía, edificios oficiales, embajadas, etc. Tal epidemia de narcisismo es otra prueba más de la soberbia imperial españolista.
A las famosas peluqueras Luz y Gema se les ha encomendado la heroica misión de cuidar la sedosa cabellera de su majestad. Ambas cumplen una extenuante jornada de trabajo que comienzan al toque de diana (6 de la mañana) -casi todos los días del año sin excepciones-. Son memorables sus eximias obras de arte: el moño rizado, el flequillo ladeado, la coleta sutil, el clásico recogido de bailarina, el pelo liso, ondas retro, corte bob, las mechas más claras, más oscuras, el alisamiento, la melena rizada. Pero hay algo que no han podido evitar y es que a la reina se le caiga el pelo (por culpa del excesivo uso de tintes, acondicionadores y demás menjurjes) y neutralizar la aparición de las primeras canas. El desgaste de su tupida cabellera es más que evidente y se teme-que si no se toman las medidas oportunas- en un corto periodo de tiempo, pueda quedarse calva. Para evitar tamaña tragedia que la condenaría a usar una incómoda peluca se le está aplicando un revolucionario tratamiento de choque a base de champús y lociones especiales por parte de los más prestigiosos dermatólogos de España. Se ha descubierto que su alteza real es alopécica nerviosa por lo que sus psicólogos le han recomendado la práctica del bikram yoga. Dejar su mente en blanco es la mejor terapia para que recupere el equilibrio y la armonía cósmica.
Sus asesores y estilistas encabezadas por Eva Fernández estudian cada gesto de su expresión facial y corporal. Sencillamente su majestad es una las más cotizadas “influencers” del mercado, una top model de insuperable valía que se la pelean las más importantes firmas a nivel nacional e internacional. Es necesario que doña Letizia conserve la línea con una exhaustiva dieta Perricone tan popular entre las estrellas de Hollywood. La reina está flaca, muy delgada ¡oh virgen santa! ¿Será anoréxica? O a lo mejor sufre alguna dolencia grave porque parece más un saco de huesos. ¿Quizás sea el efecto de una mala relación con Felipe VI, sus suegros o la familia real? Al fin y al cabo ella es una intrusa, una plebeya vulgar y corriente. Con razón se siente odiada por sus súbditos que la consideran una advenediza carente de rancio abolengo.
Su católica majestad siempre se le ve tan etérea y angelical. Su piel tersa y sin una arruga demuestra que está bendecida por la madre naturaleza (y las incontables sesiones en la cámara hiperbárica) De su look ultra natural se encarga el su súper maquillador Daniel Vicente: primero que todo el bálsamo para los labios antes de repasarlos con color carmín (1001 pintalabios ) y una delicada sombra de ojos Cooper (favorita de las modelos) Todos los cortesanos tienen que quedarse maravillados con sus pestañas larguísimas rizadas con rímel que resaltan sus bellísimos ojos verdes que se vuelven chispeantes al enmarcarlos con un khol negro. Y para rematar el toque pastel sobre sus parpados que da luz a sus poderosísimas cejas. Menos mal que el palacio de la Zarzuela está muy bien abastecido con la más alta gama de cosméticos: L’Oréal Paris, Vichy, Avon, Mac Mac, Nars o Chanel.
A la reina le encantan los modelos exclusivos de Inditex o Zara, los Massimo Dutti, Uterque, Designers, Remix, Felipe Prieto, Loewe, Carolina Herrera, Nina Ricci, Hugo Boss, Felipe Varela o Estella McCartney. Definitivamente su armario está muy bien abastecido pues se reserva un traje para cada ocasión según las tendencias de primavera, verano, otoño e invierno. Habría que sacar la cuenta de todos los vestidos que ha estrenado (no suele repetirlos) durante los años que lleva de reina consorte. Son tantos que incluso necesita la ayuda de una abnegada doncella que los clasifique y los mantenga a punto. La reina por su suprema elegancia es el espejo en el cual tienen que verse reflejadas las mujeres españolas. En el fondo es una feminista radical que para sobrevivir tiene que adaptarse a las veleidades del régimen monárquico (papista) patriarcal.
En el tema de los zapatos su majestad también es muy exigente ya que sus delicados pies deben calzar las mejores marcas: Blahnik, Magrit, Pura López, Mango, Prada Miu Miu, Lodi, Carolina Herrera. Su zapato fetiche es el de tacón de aguja de Magrit. En su zapatero guarda más de 500 pares de zapatos de súper lujo (a cargo de los presupuestos generales del estado, por supuesto) Sin lugar a dudas que va camino de convertirse en la nueva Imelda Marcos (esposa del dictador Ferdinand Marcos) que tenía más de 1000 pares de zapatos. Otro de sus complementos favoritos son los bolsos cuyas marcas favoritas son: Uterque, Magrit, Felipe Varela, Carolina Herrera, Lidia Faro, Roger Vivier, Malababa, Cucareliquia, Adolfo Domínguez, Ángel Schlesser, Hugo Boss, Según los periodistas de la prensa del corazón posee más de 300. Aunque son apenas un adorno porque ella no necesita ni documentos, ni tarjetas, pues una sola palabra suya basta para cumplir cualquiera de sus caprichos.
Pero en la vida de doña Letizia no todo es frivolidad ya que en su corazón prevalece el espíritu altruista y solidario. La nueva madre Teresa de Calcuta apoya incondicionalmente a las ONGs y demás organismos de ayuda humanitaria que se empeñan en redimir a los más pobres y afligidos. Con sus manos caritativas acaricia a los huérfanos y menesterosos que ante su luminosa presencia renacen de las cenizas.
En la novela “Piel de Zapa” de Balzac el argumento central es la búsqueda del elixir de la eterna juventud, mejor dicho, el deseo de la longevidad aunque sea a costa de venderle el alma al diablo. En “El retrato de Dorian Grey” el genial escritor irlandés Oscar Wilde desarrolla la tesis de que lo único que vale en la vida es la belleza, el atractivo físico y la satisfacción de los sentidos. La Reina Letizia desea mantenerse tan joven como Dorian cuando Basil lo retrató en el cuadro. Porque la figura pintada en la tela es la que envejece y no el personaje real. El mito de Dorian Grey es una hipócrita mascarada que arrastra a aquellos que caen en sus tentáculos a la cruel autodestrucción. http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=249185&titular=la-asunci%F3n-a-los-cielos-de-su-majestad-la-reina-do%F1a-letizia-
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2018.07.30 12:50 BisuteriadeModa Collares de moda y colgantes para mujer

¿Cuáles son los Tipos de Collares y sus Usos?
Es común que dentro del Mundo de la Belleza y la Moda haya diversos términos que en algún momento utilizamos para generalizar algo sin saber que tienen algún nombre especifico y no lo sabíamos. Ahora en este articulo te quiero hablar de los diversos Tipos de Collares que existen, sobre sus largos y las maneras y ocasiones en que puedes utilizarlos.
Te aseguro que así como eres de cuidadosa al elegir las prendas de tu outfit, también lo eres para elegir los accesorios que utilizaras para complementarlo y poder tener cierta armonía en todo tu estilo sin pasar de largo la manera en que todo lo que uses luzca perfecto al traerlo puesto.
Ahora haré que la próxima vez que tomas la decisión de utilizar un collar dentro de tu outfit sepas que tipo de collar es, así como, si es el indicado para usarlo con la ropa que elijas o para la ocasión que decidas usarlo. Todas, como mujeres, nos encanta que nos elogien, sentirnos cómodas con lo que llevamos puesto y por supuesto vernos Divinas cuando es necesario.
Toma nota de todo lo que este articulo podrá hacer por ti al brindarte una nueva manera de escoger y lucir un collar.
El collar es un complemento ideal si quieres resaltar tu figura porque estiliza tu cuello, al mismo tiempo que lo adorna y resalta el escote que utilices. Como te platique en un articulo anterior, elegir los accesorios de bisuteria que más te favorezcan ira en función de la estatura, complexión, tipo de rostro, etc. y los collares no son la excepción debido a que hay de varios tipos y formas y no todos nos favorecen a todas por el simple hecho de ser únicas.
El collar
Tiene una medida de 30 a 33 cm. Tradicionalmente, suele ser un hilo de perlas ajustado al cuello, y sujeto en la parte trasera, donde está el cierre, con un broche. Pero hoy en día existen infinidad de materiales que harán lucir un collar de este tipo perfecto para resaltar tu belleza. Se pueden utilizar dos, tres o más hilos, dependiendo de la longitud y esbeltez de tu cuello. Tu cuello lucirá atractivo y hermoso, proyectando ese toque de elegancia que nos brinda un collar de este largo. Un collar de este tipo con un vestido negro es sin duda una combinación explosiva de glamour y sensualidad.
Gargantilla o Choker
Es un collar corto que oscila entre los 35 y los 40 centímetros, por lo que suele ir bastante pegado al cuello. Para algunas de nosotras es algo incomodo o molesto usar algo tan justo sobre el cuello, es por ello, que deberás elegir aquel que te hace sentir cómoda. No voy a negar que este tipo de gargantillas te hacen ver mas esbelta por que estiliza tu figura. Este tipo de collares puede utilizarse con cualquier tipo de prenda y ocasión y es el modelo el que determinará la ropa exacta que deberás utilizar. Puedes utilizarlo desde un outfit sport, hasta un elegante vestido de noche ya que por su largo favorece a la mayoría de los escotes. Así, que si deseas asistir a un evento de día y quieres verte arreglada pero no tan formal, esta es una gran opción.
Princesa
Es un collar un poquito más largo que el anterior, tiene una medida de 43 a 48 centímetros. Este tipo de collar aporta mucha elegancia, por lo que es recomendado lucirlo en ocasiones especiales. Es el collar más comúnmente utilizado y es el complemento perfecto para algún vestido para cualquier evento social. Resaltan y decoran el cuello, es ideal para mujeres de estatura baja a promedio. Puedes utilizarlo con cuellos redondos y altos, pero también se complementa con escotes muy bajos. Así que si no sabes que tipo de collar utilizar, un collar de este tipo siempre te sacara de apuros.

Matiné

Tiene una medida entre los 50 y los 60 centímetros. Es un collar que puedes utilizarlo en cualquier momento, para el diario, o para una ocasión más elegante, de gala o de negocios ya que es un collar que te dará mucha seguridad por aportar a tu look profesionalismo y confianza. Lucen mucho mejor con escotes altos que añaden sofisticación, o bien, con vestidos largos.
Ópera
Los collares tipo Ópera tienen una medida entre los 71 a 86 cm de longitud, es decir, quedan un poco por debajo de la altura del pecho. Las mujeres de complexión delgada lucen muy favorecidas con este tipo de collares. Es perfecto para lucir con un escote alto o redondo, ademas te ofrece la posibilidad de utilizarlo en varias opciones atractivas como sencillo o con varios hilos. También te puede permitir anudarlo por debajo del escote. Este collar últimamente se ha empleado en trajes de noche con estilos más casuales e informales elaborados de materiales distintos a las perlas, es perfecto para renovar tu estilo.
Cuerda o Coco Chanel
Puede llegar a los 100 centímetros o más. Con este tipo de collares podrás darle forma si lo deseas, hacer algún nudo al mismo o simplemente dejarlo colgar. Por ello se le denomina Coco Chanel, ya que la famosa diseñadora puso de moda este tipo de collar. Es muy usado en pasarelas de moda y en la alta costura por lo que al usarlo te sentirás una auténtica Top Model al transmitir elegancia y sensualidad. Debido a su largo te permite obtener collares tipo princesa o matiné, incluso, utilizarlo con una pulsera múltiple.
Ahora que ya sabes los diferentes tipo de collares que existen, así como sus usos, atrévete a innovar tu estilo y elegir aquel que mejor vaya con la prenda que utilices para resultar favorecida por completo. Prueba hasta conseguir el estilo que desees para verte hermosa y no dejes de platicarnos como te ha funcionado esta información.
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2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
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2014.12.25 13:33 JORBARAKA LAS ELECCIONES INTERNAS DE PODEMOS GIJÓN, DE CERCA

En toda organización hay momentos para el aplauso, para la crítica cuando se ven errores y aspectos mejorables y también para la denuncia de lo que se ve mal o incorrecto. Ya que estamos entre compañeros, donde hay confianza, en un ambiente de mútua lealtad, propicio a la franqueza fraternal entre conmilitones, me permití la libertad de comentar en artículos anteriores algunas pequeñas cuestiones de las dos principales candidaturas (Somos y XixonSíPuede) que aunque no empañaban en absoluto la valía global del proyecto y el proceso, sí convenía tener en cuenta. Sé que alguien externo podría pensar que muestra la debilidad interna de Podemos cuando es justo lo contrario, significa que a diferencia de otras organizaciones políticas donde el barro ya te salpica de lejos (IU, UPD, por no hablar de las heces que rebosan de los partidos grandes) en Podemos Gijón necesitas recurrir al microscopio para encontrar algo de acné. Y el acné, como sabeis, se va con la edad.
La bailarina (Ana Belén/Víctor Manuel)
Si averiguan bien quién no tiene una legaña o más de una por la mañana hay enfermedades que nunca se confiesan que en la bailarina no se ven.
[…]
Confesando bien todo el mundo hace pecado en cuanto la misa termina, todo el mundo tiene un primer enamorado en la bailarina no lo ves.
Sucio tras la oreja bigote de grosella braguita un poco vieja no le ves.
Incluso el cutis más cuidado de la top model más excelsa, cuando te acercas lo suficiente, tiene sus imperfecciones. Esa manchita imperceptible al ojo humano parece aterradora bajo la lupa. Y bajo el microscopio se hacen visibles millones de microorganismos. ¿Por qué las campañas electorales parecen siempre una pelea en el barro?
Primero, porque como cualquier competición cuyos límites no estén perfectamente reglados, acaba en mayor o menor grado incentivando las triquiñuelas y la manipulación, a menudo estableciendo ganadores y perdedores. Saca a la luz la peor cara del ser humano –ese cromagnon supuestamente evolucionado–, propicia la rivalidad y exacerba las emociones. Segundo, porque los candidatos se colocan en un portaobjetos y son observados con lupa, escudriñados escrupulosa y detenidamente. A esa distancia, no hay nadie maravilloso.
Por ello, el elector debería saber relativizar esos dos elementos a la hora de juzgar, debería ser reflexivo y racional, buscar un diagnóstico verificable y no establecer unas expectativas sobredimensionadas a la hora de elegir.
¿Quién hace un casting o unas elecciones para escoger a sus amigos, su pareja? ¿Quién puede presumir de haberse casado con la mejor esposa posible? ¿Quién necesita 'la mejor opción posible' para ser feliz, para compartir su vida, su tarde de sábado, su actividad social o su proyecto político?
No, desde luego, ninguno de los tres candidatos a secretario general me parece la mejor opción (como yo no lo soy para lo que sea que haga en el Círculo). Tampoco lo esperaba. Ni creo sea necesario, cuando hay un equipo humano tan amplio, talentoso y participativo trabajando colectivamente en los diversos rincones. El 2 de enero ya no habrá camisetas moradas o camisetas lilas, sólo camisetas de Podemos. Si algo se comentaba profusamente durante la campaña era el deseo que teníamos todos de que llegase ese dia y ponernos todos a trabajar en lo que verdaderamente importa, en hacer POLÍTICA, en ponernos en serio con la tarea que nos ha reunido y traído hasta aquí.
Aunque Podemos se quiera fijar el objetivo a largo plazo de un cambio sustancial de la realidad social basado en unos ambiciosos ideales, no debe perder de vista la imperiosa y urgente necesidad de frenar el actual sistema de corrupción y desprecio por la ciudadanía. No se trata de conformarse con un mal menor (menos da una piedra) sino de jerarquizar las prioridades, de marcar unas expectativas a distintas velocidades. Si alentador es crear ilusión de cambio en la gente, inteligente es adoptar la actual postura de no alimentar falsas esperanzas. Separar: 1) los objetivos que DEBEMOS cumplir a corto y medio plazo; 2) las medidas que debemos intentar aprobar o derogar, y 3) el rumbo al que encaminar nuestro país para dirigirlo hacia la justicia social, la igualdad de oportunidades y el cumplimiento íntegro y eficaz de la Declaración de Derechos Humanos, el Protocolo de Kioto, la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias y otros 'Compromisos' internacionales y humanos que buscan un mundo mejor.
Soy iconoclasta. Procuro saber antes que 'creer'. No comparto muchos de los mitos y banderas de mis compañeros de viaje político: Democracia, República, Pacifismo, Feminismo. La Democracia no es tan buen sistema, el ser humano se merece un sistema más avanzado y complejo, sólo es un mal menor cuando los otros sistemas que nos dan a escoger son dictaduras, plutocracias, oligarquías, etc. ¿Qué prefieres, tener cáncer o gripe? ¡Viva el estornudo! Hay quienes veneran la República porque la Monarquía, jajaja, es un sistema viejuno y anacrónico, no como la República que es una fórmula recién creada desde el espíritu más preclaro y moderno. Repito, jajaja. China, Irán, Siria, Guinea Ecuatorial, Rusia, Israel, son ejemplos de que República (así, sola, de por sí) no significa absolutamente nada. En la Revolución Francesa entendieron que la Democracia necesitaba de más elementos para que fuera algo realmente deseable y le incorporaron dos apéndices: un Estado de Derecho y un Régimen de Derechos y Libertades. ¡Qué bonita la paz! Pero ¿quién quiere una Paz sin Libertad? Prefiero vivir en la España de Felipe VI que en la Pax romana de la República de Putin.
En realidad, me importa poco que el Jefe de Estado lleve corona o no, votar por un gobernante o por otro. Lo que quiero es un sistema de gobierno donde dé igual quién gobierne o de qué partido sea, donde yo sepa qué se hace y por qué, donde pueda fiscalizar su acción de gobierno, donde se me consulte para las cosas importantes, donde el trabajo técnico lo hagan técnicos y administren quienes hayan aprobado una oposición justa. No me importa quien gobierne si puedo cerciorarme de que sirve a los ciudadanos, nos consulta, y puedo revocarlo si no cumple.
Y por eso, francamente, me importa poco (poco no es nada) si mi próximo secretario general es Humberto, Xandru o Mario. Confío, quiero confiar en el Proyecto. A mí me importan los principios y los objetivos de Podemos. Me importa que me guíen y no me dirijan, que me escuchen y me representen, que me animen y no me empujen, que comparta mis/nuestras metas y anhelos, que cumpla de corazón el Compromiso Ético. Me importa que Podemos siga siendo Podemos, que si se salen de la senda del consenso puedan ser reconducidos participativamente, que si incumplen o abandonan los principios que nos trajeron aquí puedan ser revocados. No hay santitos en Podemos Gijón pero si funcionan los mecanismos garantistas de control y tranparencia, basta con que sean honrados. Hay personas que me caen bien y personas que me caen mal, y me veo capaz de trabajar con cualquiera. En el Consejo Ciudadano, en una mesa informativa, en un Equipo de trabajo o donde sea. Y sé que muchos de esos a los que caigo mal trabajarán conmigo porque la generosidad y el objetivo común está por encima de las 'pequeñas tonterías' personales.
Jorge Otero [Baraka] Candidato no agrupado en lista al Consejo Ciudadano de Podemos Gijón/Xixón
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